I love a good quote. We have a chalkboard by our front door where we leave a new quote to reflect on throughout the week, a little ritual of our home. I also love taking photos. So this here post is an offering of two of my favorite loves- my photography, with an overlay of quotes to ponder. I will be adding to this page regularly.

 

 

 

 

 

 

My eyes widened at the sight of the perfectly intact body of a dead Luna Moth that lay below the nesting box. I gathered the eggs with the curve of my shirt and scooped the moth up with the other hand, then wandered down the hill to show Hart. I couldn’t help but make meaning of these gifts coming in unison, right before I left for my 50th birthday dark cave retreat. Birth and death giving itself to me, simultaneously.

It’s been one moon cycle since I went into the cave, and I am beginning to find words to describe the experience. One thing I know is that I was not in there long enough. The work was just beginning, and then I came out. I didn’t get to the other side. 3 days and 3 nights was too short, so I will be returning one day.

I have longed to do a dark cave retreat for years but it just never happened— until it did. You know your life is overly full when the best 50th birthday party you can think of is to be left alone. And lean into the Mystic.

The week before, I began a cleanse- no black tea, dairy, sugars, or processed foods of any kind and very little food at all, actually. Mostly soups, buckwheat and ferments. The closer I came to the day of entering the cave, the less food I desired.

My friend Frank, who had done a week-long cave retreat in this very cave in Tennessee, came with me and was my ally through the process. He stayed up the road and would come at random times (3 times total) during my retreat and ring a vibratone at which I would ring a bell in response, our signal that all was well. A mystic in his own right, Frank supports our community with the medicine of the starry heavens. I’m so grateful for you, Frank!

When I arrived, I placed the roses, yarrow and mugwort I brought from my garden atop a boulder next to the cave’s entrance and filled my Sicilian bowl with water from the stream that runs under our home, setting Nadia’s crow stuffie next to it. I gave my prayers and intentions along with these offerings, and felt as ready as I ever would, to step into the darkness. I would be coming out of the cave head first, 3 days later, at my birth time, on my 50th birthday.

How incredibly huge this cave is! My dear friend Patrick, whose family has stewarded this land for 3 generations, is 56 and has been exploring the cave’s nooks and crannies since he was 5 and is still finding new places! Patrick is a gem through and through and was also a wonderful support in this process. He loaned me a hard hat fitted with headlamp and the 3 of us carried in my supplies for the stay, including two gallons of spring water. The cave’s entrance looks like a vagina as you can see in the only photo I took while there. The temperature drops immediately as you enter, and the moistness becomes palpable.

The smell of the cave took my breath away! I was really worried the smell would be dank and musty, but instead it was alluringly pleasing. Really, I had braced myself to be so physically uncomfortable for the time, thinking it would be smelly, cold and claustrophobic, but instead I felt like I was in an ancient temple of incredible beauty and cleanliness. I stayed warm and my body never ached like it always does when I go camping. The cave had a strong feminine energy that held me the whole time I was inside. Her walls shined in the light of my headlamp like hammered copper. In some areas the ceiling dripped water, and my first impulse was to lick a droplet. So I did. It tasted so so good, like a healing elixir. The curves, multiple caverns and rooms, the format and textures—I was left speechless at this beauty, I really had no idea!

Serpentining hundreds of feet within, Patrick and Frank led me to an open space big enough to stand up and lie down, and this is where I made my nest. I set up my bedding: a tarp, wool blanket, then a yoga mat, two inflatable sleeping mats, a cotton sheet and then my sleeping bag and pillow. The ground is damp and cool and can suck the warmth right out of a human, and so I put on my cave attire: cotton tanktop, silk undershirt then wool shirt then down jacket; cotton long johns and wool pants; wool sox and hat and only when I was inside of my sleeping bag did I take off the jacket and wool pants.

Next, I set up my pee area, because I know you are wondering- what did I do with my bodily wastes while in there? I laid a small bit of plastic down then set up a two-gallon bucket with lid and a roll of toilet paper inside of a ziplock bag, a few feet from my bed. It is pitch black in the cave- darker than any darkness I have ever experienced, and just locating the pee area a few feet away from my station was tricky. I could easily get lost. I had to move slowly and methodically, on my hands and knees, patting the ground and using my limbs like eyes.

I did a 3-day fast while in the cave because 1) you don’t want to eat in there…the environment just doesn’t lend itself to that. And 2) I didn’t want to poop. I brought plastic bags and yogurt containers to deal with that in case I did, but fortunately, I never had to deal with a bowel movement.

Once I was all set up, I said goodbye to Patrick and Frank and they made their way out with Patrick sharing a verse from that lovely song “You are beautiful, you are courageous,” the last words to linger in the air as I blew out the candle and gave myself over to total darkness and silence. No sounds from the outside world made it down here.

I lie down and fell asleep right away, and awoke feeling unusually rested and peaceful, not really having a sense of how long I had slept. I wanted to pray aloud and sing but the silence was so profound, it felt insulting to pierce it with my voice. I thought about the huge camel crickets and the little spiders I had seen on my way in, and the rats Frank had told me about and whom I could hear scurrying near, and I remembered, “I am a guest here,” in the home of these creatures and this water that never sees light and this cool, damp clay and patches of dry, powdery dirt. I appreciated how receptive they all were of me.

Eventually, I felt ready to set up my spiritual container. I called in the directions, my guardians, gave thanks and offered up my intention. I began to see symbols on the walls, some recognizable but others I had never seen, like watching a busy moving wall paper or something. When I closed my eyes, they went away. I put my hand in front of my face to see if I could make out the shape of my fingers. Nope, not a one. These symbols came and went the whole time I was there. What time was it? Night or day? What did it matter? I became disoriented quickly and just accepted it as part of the experience.

The water dripped in the distance every few minutes- drip, drip, drip- I did not realize a drop of water could be so loud! I sat in meditation, breathing slowly and deeply, in and out, being the witness to whatever feelings and sensations arose, and then watched them pass. Suddenly, a new sound arose- what is that sound?? At first I thought I was hearing a helicopter but then it got closer and closer until, Zompp- the sound landed on me! A stink bug! I had brought a stink bug into the cave with me! I couldn’t believe it.

The stink bug stayed nearby the entire time I was in the cave. Come on, are you serious? I kept thinking, “You have this whole enormous cave to fly off to, go somewhere else!” But no. It wanted to stay next to me for whatever reason. I attempted to tune in with the stink bug, but I never could get over my annoyance with it enough to do that, so instead I tuned out.

I stood up and stretched my arms overhead, leaning from side to side. Inside the absence of distraction, I was free to give my presence to whatever was most alive in me. And unbeknownst to me, the first thing that beckoned my attention was the grief of my mother’s death. It had been over a year since she died, and I have felt the waves of grief many a time, but something about being alone in the belly of the earth allowed the floodgates to open. I cried and cried and called out for her. “Mama, mama, I miss you, I want you.” I saw her in her cotton nightgown and I ached a horrible ache to hug her and be held by her. I cried until there were no more tears and the ache had passed, and I felt her loving spirit right next to me.

Next was another wave of grief. I wept over my belated partner Frank’s abrupt death. It has been almost 14 years and there are still tears to be cried. And then I felt the essence of my paternal grandmother and cried over her absence in my life. I wept at the frailty of being human. My body shook with tears. I felt remorse for things I did or didn’t do, the ways I have failed as a mother and wife and prayed sincerely for my daughters and marriage. Then my little white kitty Junipurr came to me as a companion in the darkness. I swear I heard her purr.

I sat down, feeling worn out, but in that good relieving way, like when you have just completed  hard work, and now you can rest. I felt peaceful. I lie there, suspended in nothingness. Then Frank made his first appearance and rang the vibratone. I could not see him or any light, but could hear the beautiful sound in the distance and I rang my bell back. I was so grateful for this check-in. It was a welcome lifeline for me to the outside world.

I sang every song I could think of while I was in this cave. I loved it. Song after song arose out of me. I spent the majority of my time in the fetal position. Just floating in the watery womb of my Earth Mother, resting in peace. I really cannot put into words the love and comfort that I felt emanating from this place. I was also overcome with gratitude at times.

I would lay on my back or sit up in half-lotus. I’d do child’s pose, cat/cow stretches, forward fold, or stand and shake my body, swinging my arms and tapping my marma points. Then back down into fetal position again. I gave myself over to deep time.

I fell asleep again and was awakened by a train? No- it was Frank ringing the vibratone again- hadn’t he just done that? It seemed like no time had passed since the last check-in.

Later I found out that Frank made his first check- in about 15 hours after I’d been in there, his second one about 12 hours after that and the last one, he waited another 24 hours. Time really became warped. At the end of my stay, I was just beginning to catch on to what was day and what was night. The cave inhaled at dawn and exhaled at dusk, and I could actually feel a temperature and pressure change.

The amount of people, plants, animals and places that came alive in my heart while I was alone  was intense! Whomever I would think of, I prayed for their life. Bless their life. Weep weep weep for the blessing of their life! The first two days were fairly peaceful and blissful and then the hard work really started.

It began with a period of “What the hell am I doing in here? How boring! I have things to do, places to be! Get me out of here!” I moved through it mostly, but not fully. I knew I needed more time to do/be nothing, to accept that reality. But it was hard. Uncomfortable. But always, I felt very loved and held in this process.

I did not sleep, at least I don’t think I did, nearly as much as I had imagined I would. I asked for dream visions, but I only had two dreams I can recall, both of which were silly and mundane, like a flashmob party for pulling invasive weeds and making burritos on an abandoned road corner in Ireland.

I worked through my pettiness. My worries of who was going to take care of things on our property the way I think they should be taken care of and oh so much more. And I still have heaps of work to do on myself out here in the light. It really is most humbling.

The most difficult thing I experienced was facing my own death. Like I would never make it out alive. At one point I became paralyzed with the fear that my support had been murdered, no one knew where I was, and I would not be able to find my way out. Since I couldn’t count on it being daylight to use as an affirmation I was near the entrance/exit, I could wander the caverns endlessly, weak from no food. I definitely did not have confidence I could get out of the cave on my own as there are many turns. In fact, when I did finally exit with Patrick and Frank behind me letting me lead the way, I made a wrong turn.

I let myself go down another rabbit hole- that a boulder had rolled in front of the entrance or that it had caved in from an avalanche and I was stuck in here. I knew this was farfetched, yet it consumed me and I saw my rotting corpse and the bones of other corpses. I needed to let myself face these fears and suffering. To die before I die.

At this point, it seemed like it had been 2 days since Frank had checked on me. Why was he not coming? We had left the check-in times rather vague on purpose. “Oh please, Frank, please come, I am done with this” I thought. I am complete. I am ready to go. Still, he didn’t come. I had torturing thoughts that dragged on and on. It was Holy Terror. I was past my own death and feeling into the the suffering of the world, past and present. The grief, horror, sadness, pain- all of it was flashing before me.

Then suddenly Frank rang, and instead of ringing the bell back, I called out to him, whining. I asked him what day it was and he answered, “It’s dark out now and you have 16 hours left before your birth time.” I told him I was having a very hard time and then wept.  He gave wise words of support and it gave me the strength and courage to carry on. And then he left and I had some time of peace, yes a real deep peace. But then the fears started to rise again.

It dawned on me that this work was not for everyone. It seems very natural for me to go into a cave alone, but I don’t think it’s for everyone. Then I fell asleep for a brief time and awoke to such a sense of wanting to be done with this hard work. That’s why I know I need to go back- I didn’t make it through those deep layers to the other side, but came out prematurely. I wanted to stay longer, but I have chosen the life of homemaker, property manager, earth steward, teacher, wife and mother and had an agreement for how long I’d be gone.  Also, I could sense the longer I stayed in there, the harder it would be to re-enter this bright, loud world.

And suddenly, as if it had actually been no time at all, Frank was back and candle light was with him this time- the signal it was nearing my birth time, and I was finished here.

Frank had carried in and lit up the Dogwood candle holder Jason made me that I knew I wanted as the first light. I didn’t even think about it having 5 candle shelves, but Frank said it was my cave birthday cake, representing each decade. I felt so tender and raw, like a newborn might feel. I shared with Patrick and Frank some of my experience and they lovingly listened and held space for this significant moment of my life. I said a goodbye gratitude prayer and packed up and felt it was very important for me to carry out my own pee. Gah- that was heavy, and I was feeling very weak as I meandered through the dark tunnels.

And then I saw the light, Oh the day! I put the pee bucket aside and fell prostrate onto the leaf litter and buried my face in it. A Virginia Creeper sprout looked so dear and special, when in my garden, I am pulling them out left and right! I am an above ground creature!! I love the light! The shadows! The green and growing things! Rain was gently falling. My friends had spread around roses to welcome me back. I gave the land right outside the cave the blessing salts I had brought, some soil from home, more flower petals. Patrick’s girlfriend Leah made me the most delicious green smoothie and earrings with vertebrae from a snake she found on the land, that she painted with a glow-in-the-dark substance, to remember my cave time. Thank you, Leah!!

The gifts of the Cave were many. They are still coming. I would say one big one is how the frantic-ness of my everyday life was made so blatantly evident. It played out like a movie before my eyes. The craziness of how we we live our lives in this modern world. How hurried and busy. I don’t want to live like that anymore. It has worn me out and is not healthy for me, the ones around me, the planet- none of us.  I turned off my cell phone for 5 days during this time, no internet, no schedule. How can I allow this reckoning in the darkness to be integrated into my daily lit-up life? I have not figured that out yet, but I am very aware that it must change. I sense it already changing.

Another gift is that same knowing that comes through the birth and death portal, labor and the passing of a loved one, of how precious and miraculous and fragile life truly is. Why do we waste it on quarreling or judging or killing or oppressing each other and ourselves? How can we live our daily lives embodying the humbling wisdom that everything is temporary, that each moment is a treasure? We are endlessly consuming all this unnecessary stuff- information, entertainment, material possessions, excess foods etc… in order to avoid facing our own mortality and imperfections. By facing the dark, I was able to shed a light on this knowing in a deeper way.

In the cave, the superficiality of my persona slowly falls away and what is essential has more space to be.

Perhaps it was having a pond at our house growing up that eventually led me to become a plantwalker. One of the most intriguing ecosystems to lead a child back to nature, I would sit, walk, swim and wade for hours in that pond, watching tadpoles, catching frogs, being nibbled on by fish, arranging aquatic plants into buoyant fairy houses, avoiding snakes, feeling squishy mud between my toes, catching bream and bass, floating on my back, listening to a heavenly voice that calmed and supported me. I wish I had a photo of that pond, but here is at least a picture of the house that held me as a child.

Eventually, I stepped away from the pond into the woods nearby and began building fairy forts in the forest. I remember vividly sitting under those trees, after collecting all kinds of leaves, twigs, moss, and nuts, and being overcome with a feeling of love and protection while I was creating these fairy villages. It was, at the time, my unconscious way of communing with Earth Mother and Sky Father. I climbed trees, explored the river bank, ate dirt, looked for skulls and bones of animals, dug holes, and hid inside huge azalea bushes for fun. All this time, I was hearing the pulse of earth but had no human mentors, teachers or guides to help me understand how to steward these things with care.  Still, being engaged everyday like this with the outdoors, I was building a relationship with the plant and animal people, that would, as the years went on, inform my heart and mind of how to be a loving citizen of the world.

I do know my father had a strong love of nature and was outside more than in. I followed him around and saw that he picked white pine needles and chewed on them as he walked around the woods, so that was my first introduction into eating something wild! He was an avid hunter and thus I grew up on venison burgers, sausage, stew, and steak; eating frog legs, quail, wild turkey roasts, snapping turtle and catfish stew, and I attribute all that to feeding my wildness.

In high school, I veered away from these things, thinking city life, fake nails, tanning beds, fancy outfits, rock concerts and aims for a showy car and a highfalutin job would be a much better way to live my life. This went on for some years, until I ended up in Bellingham, Washington, at Fairhaven College. I suddenly had a strong pull to get the hell out of dodge and applied to 3 far away universities within the US, not quite brave enough to travel out of the country yet. My mom and I drove across the country so I could have my red Bronco II there with me on campus, and I was quite a sight, I am sure. Dressed in a polka dot mini skirt, jelly flats, polka-dot shirt with padded shoulders, hair and make-up all done up, unloading all my pumps, fancy dresses, matching bedroom decor and several caboodles of makeup— I stood out in the mossy granola setting of Western Washington like a foreign implant.

Once there, it took about half a year, but suddenly I remembered my connection to nature again, and found a role in the student garden and fell in love with Joules Graves’ music about people of the earth tribe and became a member of the food co-op and learned about quinoa and submerged myself regularly on top of Sehome Hill, a forested sanctuary inside the city, and started to hear voices again from the plant world.

Oh, Stinging Nettle was the first one to talk. “You didn’t think I could sting like that, did you? I am not an ant! But I am the plant version. Drink me, take me home. Eat me.” I did, and I still didn’t really know what I was doing.

Soon after, I was at a friend’s house and had a terrible stomach ache. She offered me chamomile tea, and I thought she meant Lipton Tea, which was the only thing I associated with the word tea. Sweetened or unsweetened tea, with ice or without? This question had been posed to me at every restaurant I grew up going to, at my grandmother’s, at any church event- basically anywhere I went in the South. And I thought tea was the grossest thing, sweetened or unsweetened. I didn’t want to drink any of it! So I told her no, but she explained this was an herbal tea, reminded me the story of Peter Rabbit, and to give it a try. She poured hot water over the Celestial Seasonings tea bag and while it steeped, I held that warm mug in my hands and after drinking it, my tummy ache was completely gone! I couldn’t believe it. But I was now a Believer.

I was around 19 or 20-years-old at the time, and as I write this, I am almost at the half a century point of my life. The walk I have had with the plants has been a combo of crawls, climbs, hikes, runs, meanders, glides and strolls. I have walked behind, beside and under so many human, plant, animal and celestial teachers, that I couldn’t possibly recap them all in this story. To all of you not mentioned, I am indebted to you. To all of you that stand out in significant enough memory to include here, I bow to you for holding my hand and heart on this glorious journey of becoming a plantwalker.

My college companion, Leif, showed me you can buy bulk herbs at the Food Co-op and brew them up into tea. Dandelion, Burdock and Licorice roots decoction sent my DNA into memory recall. Cameron, head of the Fairhaven community garden, first introduced me to cultivation. But I thought having a garden was more about writing graphs on paper of what to grow, when and where, than actually doing it! Then Alison, my roommate in a Bellingham duplex, taught me how to ‘just do it’ without all that nerdiness, and we grew an abundant garden out back! As an intern with Michael Pilarski, aka Skeeter, of Friends of the Trees, in 1993, he made me conscious of the work that needed to be done to help provide for the next seven generations. Balm of Gilead, Cottonwood tree, led me into medicine making and soothed my earthly wounds. Taylor, the boy who stole my heart, opened me up to watching trees leaf out and flower and how to capture those moments with a camera. We spent many an hour in the darkroom developing prints of nature.

In 1995, I moved to Lopez Island, on Leif’s family land, with about 11 other people, as we attempted to ‘go back to the land.’ Ironwood, aka Ocean Spray, taught me how to bend its strong branches to make a wigwam that could shelter me for months. Leif and his brother Kier included me on foraging escapes that brought back cedar for smudging, wild onions for seasoning, chickweed, plantain, dandelion and violet for salad, Salal and Salmon berries for breakfast and aromatic pine needle tea.

Living outdoors and under the stars for months on end really got me submerged into the plant world. I was starting to taste everything and once had a close encounter with Death Camas, thinking it was an Allium. I stood before Poison Hemlock, realizing that this plant world could take me on a journey of no return if not careful. I was in awe of these beings who could kill me, feed me, clothe me, house me, make me well when sick, and give me the material for my favorite thing- writing. The influence they had on my life infiltrated every pore of my being. I could live without humans and animals (not that I wanted to), but not without plants.

Western Washington opened me back up to my love of plants, and then I came back South. In 1997, I lived with my grandmother for a summer and began speaking with the plants more. I made a special spot on her land— a place where I would go each morning and pray. One morning, when I arrived at the spot, I heard the plants screaming at me, “Don’t let them mow us down!” I jumped because it was an unfamiliar sensation to hear plants screaming. I told them not to worry— this was the back part of Gram’s land and she didn’t mow it.

I went to work at the roadside stand where I sold peaches and watermelons, and when I arrived back at the house, sure enough, the whole area had been completely mowed down! I went crying to Gram and shouted, “What is going on?!” and she told me that the bamboo was taking over and she had hired someone to clear it all out. I cried as if my friends had died, which they had. And I realized I had a gift to hear the voice of the plants and that I needed to use it well.

Some years later, I found myself in upstate New York, learning from a woman named Naomi who had Paradise Gardens, and witnessed what you could do with a piece of land to turn it into a botanical sanctuary. She taught me how to grow herbs and to celebrate birthdays with the seasonal foods of the garden; how to make beauty with spiral gardens and to encourage frog habitats and to leave some areas for the wild. Behind her house was a forest with a Blue Cohosh patch I’ve yet to see the likes of anywhere else. When I first stumbled upon it one May evening, I began crying. I didn’t know what plant this was, but it had such unusual leaf color and shape and the vibration it exuded was palpable. I sat there and wept in joy. It was one of those significant moments of your life that shifts who you are. I think in that moment, I forever became a plant woman.

I began collecting houseplants and turning my home into Jumanji. I talked to them and listened to them. Sometimes it is too much, hearing the needs of plants. Hearing their desires. It could take up all my time if I just solely listened to that. I would have not time for humans, and sometimes I think I may end up the old lady on the mountain who only talks to plants. And animals, too. I hear animals similarly. But I have sharpened my focus to be with the plant people.

When I found my permanent place on the planet, in the Blue Ridge Mountains of Western North Carolina, I began planting things outside left and right. I moved in and out of rentals for years, but that didn’t matter. I had the overwhelming desire to plant trees, bulbs, bushes, flowers, vegetables- basically anything that would grow, and tend it with all my heart. Grow a sanctuary and you will end up with a sanctuary. Wherever you go. That was my motto. And look where I eventually ended up- Herb Mountain Farm, one of the most paradisiacal places I have ever seen!

At 32, I began a relationship with Frank Cook, a plant man like no other, an embodiment of the Green Man, and by default, my relationship with plants grew deeper. He taught me to “Eat something Wild everyday.” You are what you eat. He taught me to eat the rainbow- eat foods that have lots of color- red, blue, purple, yellow, orange and especially Green! He took me around the world with him to learn directly from plants and healers and his very presence expanded my consciousness. One of my highlights with him was being in South Africa in a field of huge bushes, as far as you could see, and he said, “Do you know who this is?” and I said. “No.” And he said, “This is Ashwagandha, Withania somnifera, in its natural habitat.” And I about passed out as I had only known Ashwagandha as this little struggling annual in my garden. We dug some root and it smelled like a horse, and this smell was euphoric to me. I slept with that root under my pillow for over a year.

Frank Cook in a field of Ashwagandha

Around this same time, I also met Hart, the man who would later become my husband and be the most influential person of my life in my walk with plants. I began working on his farm, at Herb Mountain, where he informally apprenticed me in conscious earth stewardship. And still is to this day.

In the forest, I am beholden by the plants and trees and able to observe and relax and be reminded of the mystery and magnificence of Creation. In the garden, I get a chance to play my hand at this creation. I love my walk with plants in both these ways. Sometimes I say, “I am off to the wild lands.” To get a break from the domesticated lands. Trying to cultivate—ok—manipulate earth into what you want her to be and do is hard work. There must be a balance for me in just observing the glory and abundance that naturally occurs without any human help, in my walk with the plants. I am a plant walker and will be until I die.

In 2014, Luke Cannon, aka Luke Learning Deer, helped us compile a species list of the flora and some of the fauna at Herb Mountain Farm.  Over the years, Marc Williams has been a valued investor in not only updating this list, but bringing in plants to help broaden it! 

This inventory begins with a description of our farm, and then a list, starting with trees and shrubs, of all the perennials here, as well as some animal life. This list is continually being updated, a true living document!


Species Inventory of Herb Mountain Farm

Weaverville, North Carolina  compiled by Luke Cannon, Marc Williams and Mary Morgaine Squire in 2014, last updated March 2024

This list begins a general survey of the biota of Herb Mountain Farm Botanical Sanctuary. The property, starting at roughly 2,600ft and rising to about 3,800ft, primarily consists of West facing slopes but also includes some South, Northeast and North facing slopes. Herb Mountain peak rises to about 4,200ft just above, which is one of the major ridges of the Craggy Mountain range, just to the East.

The property of 138 acres primarily consists of young Mixed Pine Oak forest but also includes cultivated gardens residential, commercial and educational infrastructures along the flatter Western edge. Areas of older growth and Rich Cove forest offer higher diversity within the woodland, especially within coves along the drainages. Onion Rock, a Rocky Outcrop/Escarpment, exists along the upper ridge at about 3,600ft which deserves further investigation for uncommon species.  There are two smaller westwardly draining streams, Banjo Branch and Dry Branch, that converge on the property in the wooded area of the Nature Trail, just below the old home site(stone chimney) before running down to Maney Branch.  The Nature Trail makes a mile-long loop around the lower end of the property.

With hope this list will continue to grow and serve to aid those who will steward and enjoy this land for generations to come.

Trees, shrubs and plants are listed in alphabetical order under their scientific names by family, then genus, species and common name. Only perennials are listed, (sorry annuals!) Rare plants for the Appalachians will be indicated as “Rare”; plants of invasive status will have an * following their names. Plants that were only keyed to genus will be labeled with sp. following the generic name and spp. if there are more than one kind. Species of concern refers to its increase in dying or showing excess disease or insect damage.  Mushrooms and fungi will be listed similarly. Noted Birds are listed by their common names. More Ferns, Grasses, Rushes, Sedges, Minerals, Invertebrates and Fauna, as well as Flora, are hoped to be added over time.

FLORA

TREES AND SHRUBS:

Adoxaceae

Sambucus canadensis, Common Elderberry

Viburnum acerifolium, Maple-leaved Viburnum

Viburnum dentatum, Arrowwood

Viburnum opulus, Snowball

Viburnum prunifolium, Black Haw or Cramp Bark

Viburnum rhytidophyllum, Leatherleaf Viburnum

Viburnum trilobum, High Bush Cranberry

Viburnum X pragense, Prague Viburnum

Anacardiaceae

Rhus aromatica, Fragrant Sumac

Rhus glabra, Smooth Sumac

Rhus typhina, Staghorn Sumac

Annonaceae

Asimina triloba, Common Paw-Paw

Aquifoliaceae

Ilex crenata, Japanese Holly

Ilex decidua, Winter Holly

Ilex glabra, Inkberry aka Appalachian Tea

Illex meservaea, Blue Maid Hollies

Ilex opaca, American Holly

Illex verticullata, Southern Gentlemen Winterberry

Berberidaceae

Berberis thunbergii, Barberry Bagatelle

Nandina domestica, Heavenly Bamboo

Betulaceae

Alnus sp., Alder

Betula lenta, Sweet Birch

Betula nigra, River Birch

Carpinus caroliniana, Musclewood

Corylus americana or cornuta, Mt. Hazelnut

Corylus avallena ‘contorta’, Harry Lauder’s Walking Stick

Ostrya virginiana, Hop Hornbeam

Buxaceae

Buxus sempervirens, Boxwood

Sarcococca hookeriana, Pumila Sweetbox

Calycanthaceae

Calycanthus floridus, Sweetshrub or Sweet Bubba or Carolina Allspice

Cannabaceae

Celtis sp. Hackberry

Caprifoliaceae

Weigelia sp.

Celastraceae

Euonymus alatus, Winged Burning Bush

Euonymus atropurpureus, Burning Bush or American Wahoo

Clethraceae

Clethra alniflora, Pepperbush

Cornaceae

Cornus alternifolia, Alternate-leaf Dogwood

Cornus amomum, Silky Dogwood

Cornus drummondii, Roughleaf Dogwood

Cornus florida, Flowering Dogwood (species of concern)

Cornus kousa

Cornus mas, Cornelian Cherry

Cornus racemes, Gray Dogwood

Cornus sericea, Red-osier Dogwood (Red Gnome variety)

Cupressaceae

Chamaecyparis pisifera, Boulevard Blue Sawara

Chamaecyparis pisifera, Vintage Gold Cypress

Juniperus chinensis, Angelica Blue Juniper

Juniperus conferta, Gold Coast

Juniperus horizontales, Gold strike

Thuja occidentalis, Northern Cedar

Ebenaceae

Diospyros virginiana, Persimmon

Diospyros kaki, Asian Persimmon

Elaeagnaceae

Hippophae rhamnoides, Sea Buckthorne

Ericaceae

Kalmia latifolia, Mountain Laurel

Oxydendron arboreum, Sourwood

Rhododendron austrinum, Southern Flame Azaela

Rhododendron calendulaceum, Flame azalea

Rhododendron maximum, Rosebay Rhododendron or Great Laurel

Rhododendron periclymenoides, Pinxter Azaela

Rhododendron sp., Swamp Azaela

Rhododendron spp., Rhododendron

Vaccinium altomontanum, Blue Ridge Blueberry

Vaccinium corymbosum, Highbush Blueberry

Vaccinium pallidum or stamineum Blueberries

Vaccinium vagratum, Rabbiteye Blueberry

Fabaceae

Albizia julibrissin, Mimosa

Cledastris kentuckea, Yellowwood

Cercis canadensis, Eastern Redbud

Robinia pseudoacacia, Black Locust (species of concern)

Fagaceae

Castanea mollisima, Chinese Chestnut

Fagus grandifolia, American Beech

Quercus alba, White Oak (species of concern)

Quercus falcata, Southern Red Oak

Quercus macrocarpa, Bur Oak

Quercus montana, Chestnut Oak

Quercus rubra, Northern Red Oak

Quercus stellata, Post Oak

Quercus velutina, Black Oak

Gingkoaceae

Ginko biloba, Gingko

Grossulariaceae

Ribes rotundifolium, Appalachian Gooseberry*

Hamamelidaceae

Fothergilla sp., Witch Alder

Hamamelis vernal, Ozark Witch Hazel

Hamamelis virginiana, Witch Hazel

Hydrangeaceae

Deutzia sp. “Dwarf”

Hydrangea arborescens, Wild Hydrangea

Hydrangea quercifolia, Oak Leaf Hydrangea

Hydrangea spp., Ornamental varieties

Philadelphus inodorus, Scentless Mock Orange

Illiaceae

Illicium floridanum, Star Anise Tree

Iteaceae

Itea virginica, Virginia Sweetspire

Juglandaceae

Carya cordiformis Bitternut Hickory

Carya glabra, Pignut Hickory

Carya ovalis, Red Hickory

Carya tomentosa, Mockernut Hickory

Carya illinoinensis, Pecan

Juglans nigra, Black Walnut

Lamiaceae

Clerodendrum sp., Glorybower

Vitex agnus castus, Chaste Berry

Vitex nigra

Lauraceae

Lindera benzoin, Spicebush

Sassafras albidum, Sassafras

Lythraceae

Lagerstromeia indica, Crepe Myrtle Siren Red Whit VII

Magnoliaceae

Liriodendron tulipifera, Tulip Tree

Magnolia acuminata, Cucumber Magnolia

Magnolia fraseri, Fraser or Mountain Magnolia

Magnolia grandiflora, Southern Magnolia

Magnolia macrophylla, Big Leaf Magnolia

Magnolia liliifolia, Japanese Magnolia

Magnolia hybrid acuminata and denudata, Butterfly Magnolia

Magnolia virginiana, Sweet Bay

Malvaceae

Hibiscus syriacus, Rose of Sharon

Tilia heterophylla, Appalachian Basswood or Linden

Tilia sp., European cultivar

Moraceae

Ficus carna, Dessert King

Maclura pomifera, Osage Orange

Morus alba, White Mulberry*

Morus rubra, Red Mulberry

Morus rubra, Dwarf variety Gerardi

Musaceae

Musa spp., Banana*

Nyssaceae

Nyssa sylvatica, Black Gum or Tupelo

Oleaceae

Abeliophylum distichum, White Forsythia

Chionanthus virginicus, Fringe Tree or Grandaddy Graybeard

Forsythia sp., Forsythia

Fraxinus americana, White Ash

Fraxinus spp., Ash (species of concern)

Ligustrum sinense, Privet*

Syringa sp., Lilac. One is Scentara cultivar

Pinaceae  

Picea glauca, Dwarf Alberta Spruce

Pinus koraiensis, Korean Pine

Pinus strobus, Eastern White Pine

Pinus virginiana, Scrub Pine

Pinus taeda, Loblolly Pine

Tsuga canadensis, Eastern Hemlock (species of concern)

Tsuga caroliniana, Carolina Hemlock (this species is at risk of becoming threatened and endangered, worldwide)

Platanaceae

Platanus occidentalis, American Sycamore

Rhamnaceae

Ceonothus americanus, Redroot, New Jersey Tea

Frangula carolinians, Carolina Buckthorn

Franfula alnus, Asplenifolia

Rosaceae

Amelanchier arborea, Tree Serviceberry or Juneberry

Chamaenomeles xsuperba cameo, Flowering Quince

Crataegus spp., Hawthorn

Kerria japonica, Yellow Rose of Texas

Malus sp., Apple

Physocarpus opulifolius, Ninebark

Prunus avium, Bird Cherry

Prunus pensylvanica, Fire Cherry

Prunus serotina, Black Cherry (species of concern)

Prunus sp., Cherry

Prunus sp. Cherry dwarf variety Juliet

Prunus sp., Native Plum

Prunus tomentosa, Nanking Cherry

Pyrus communis, Pear

Rosa caroliniana, Carolina Rose

Rosa multiflora, Multiflora Rose*

Rosa rugosa, Rugosa Rose*

Rosa virginiana, Virginia Rose

Rosa spp., Rose Ornamentals (Morgaine’s apothecary rose from Muffi; Firefighter; Celestial Night;

Rubus occidentalis, Black Cap Raspberry

Rubus phoenicolasius, Wineberry

Rubus sp., Blackberry

Rubus sp., Raspberry

Sorbus americana, Rowan or Mountain Ash

Spirea alba, White flowering Spirea

Spirea japonica* Very Invasive

Spirea prunifolia, Old-Fashioned Bridle Wreath Spirea

Rubiaceae

Cephalanthus occidentalis, Buttonbush

Gardenia jasmanoides, Gardenia

Rutacee

Ptelea trifoliata Wafer Ash or Hoptree

Poncirus trifoliata, Trifoliate Orange “Flying Dragon”

Salicaceae

Salix babylonica, Weeping Willow

Salix caprea, Dwarf Pussy Willow

Salix discolor, Pussy Willow

Salix sp., Willow, basket willows

Sapindaceae

Acer japonica, Japanese Maple Vitifolium

Acer negundo, Eastern Box Maple or Box Elder

Acer pensylvanicum, Striped Maple

Acer rubrum, Red Maple

Acer saccharinum, Silver Maple

Acer saccharum, Sugar Maple

Aesculus sylvatica, Painted Buckeye

Koelreuteria paniculata, Golden Rain Tree

Simaroubaceae

Ailanthus altissima, Tree of Heaven*

Styracaceae

Halesia tetraptera, Carolina Silverbell

Styrax americanus, American Snowbell

Taxaceae

Taxus sp., Yew

Theaceae

Cammelia sinensis, Tea

Thymelaeaceae

Daphne odora, Daphne

Ulmaceae

Ulmus rubra, Slippery Elm

HERBACEOUS PLANTS (MONOCOTS)

Acoraceae

Acorus calamus, Sweet Flag or Calamus

Agavaceae

Agave americana, Agave

Camassia scilloides, Eastern Camas or Quamash Lily

Hosta spp., Hosta

Yucca filamentosa, Yucca

Amaryllidaceae

Allium spp., Ornamentals

Allium cernuum, Nodding Onion

Allium sativum, Garlic as we love it!

Alium tricoccum, Ramps

Allium vineale, Field Garlic or Wild Onion

Lycoris radiata, Red Spider Lily

Narcissus pseudonarcissus, Daffodil

Araceae

Amorphophallus konjac, Voodoo Lily

Arisaema dracontium, Green Dragon

Arisaema triphyllum, Jack-in-the-Pulpit, Indian Turnip

Arum maculatum, Lords and Ladies

Zantedeschia aethiopica, Calla Lilly

Asparagaceae

Hesperaloe parviflora, Red Yucca

Maianthemum racemosum, Solomon’s Plume

Polygonatum biflorum or pubescens, Solomon’s Seal

Polygonatum kingianum, Huang Jing

Asphodelaceae  (Xanthorrhoeaceae)

Asphodelus albus, Asphodel

Hemerocallis fulva, Day Lily

Colchicaceae

Uvularia perfoliata, Perfoliate Bellwort

Uvularia sessilifolia, Sessile Bellwort

Commelinaceae

Commelina communis, Asiatic Dayflower

Tradescantia ohiensis, Spiderwort

Cyperaceae

Carex cherokeeninsis, Cherokee Sedge

Carex flaca, Blue Zinger Sedge

Carex pensylvanica, Pennsylvania Sedge

Carex plantaginea, Plantain Leaved Sedge

Carex spp., Sedges

Dioscoraceae

Dioscorea polystachya, Cinnamonvine, Air Potato*   

Dioscorea villosa, Wild Yam

Iridaceae

Crocosmia sp., Lucifer’s Tongue

Iris cristata, Dwarf Crested Iris

Iris fulva, Copper Iris

Iris pseudoacorus, Yellow Flag

Iris spp.

Juncaceae

Juncus effusus, Soft Rush

Juncus tenuis, Path Rush

Hyacinthaceae

Hyacinthus orientalis

Hyacinthus transcaspicus

Muscari atlanticum, Grape Hyacinth

Ornithogalum umbellatum, Star of Bethlehem

Liliaceae

Erythronium sp., Trout Lily

Lilium michauxii, Carolina Lily

Lilium superbum, Turk’s Cap Lily

Liriope muscari, Liriope

Medeola virginiana, Wild or Indian Cucumber

Prosartes lanuginosa, Yellow Mandarin or Fairy Bells

Scilla siberica, Siberian Squill

Melanthiaceae

Chamelirium luteum, Fairy Wand

Trillium cuneatum, Sweet Betsy or Purple Toadshade

Trillium catesbaei, Nodding Pink Flowering Trillium

Trillium erectum, Stinking Willie

Trillium luteum, Yellow Trillium

Trillium rugelii, Southern or Tall Nodding Trillium    

Veratrum viride, White Hellebore or Cornhusk-lily

Orchidaceae

Aplectrum hyemale, Adam and Eve or Puttyroot   

Corallorhiza sp., Coralroot Orchid

Cypripedium acaule, Pink Lady’s Slippers

Galearis spectabilis, Showy Orchid

Goodyera pubescens, Rattlesnake Orchid

Spiranthes cernua, Nodding Ladies’ Tresses   

Tipularia discolor, Cranefly Orchid

Poaceae

Andropogon gerdi, Black Hawk Grass

Anthoxanthum odorata, Eastern Vernal Sweetgrass

Arundinaria gigantea, Rivercane

Arundo donax, Peppermint Stick or Striped Giant Reed*

Bouteloua curtipendula, Sideoats Gramma

Chasmanthium latifolium, River Oats

Dichanthelium clandestinum, Deer-Tongue Grass

Dichanthelium sp., Witch Grass

Digitaria sanguinalis, Hairy Crag Grass

Heirochloe odorata, Ceremonial Sweetgrass

Leymus arenerius, Blue Lyme Grass

Microstegium vimineum,  Japanese Stilt Grass*

Miscanthus sinensis,  Chinese Silver Grass*

Muhlenbergia capillaris, Pink Hair Grass

Panicum virgatum, Panicgrass or Switchgrass

Phalaris arundinacea, Reed Canary Grass*

Poa annua, Bluegrass

Schizachyrium scoparium, Little Bluestem

Sorghum halapense, Johnson Grass*

Smilacaceae

Smilax glauca, Greenbrier or Sarsparilla

Smilax herbacea, Smooth Carrion Flower

Smilax rotundifolia, Common Greenbriar or Catbriar  

Typhaceae

Typha angustifolia or latifolia, Cattail*

HERBACEOUS PLANTS (DICOTS)

Acanthaceae

Acanthus mollis and spinosa, Bear’s Breeches

Ruellia caroliniensis, Carolina Wild Petunia

Amaranthaceae

Amaranthus spp.

Chenopodium album, Lamb’s Quarter or Goose-foot

Anacardiaceae

Toxicodendron radicans, Eastern Poison Ivy

Apiaceae

Angelica archangelica, European Angelica

Angelica gigas, Angelica

Angelica sinensis, Dong Quai

Angelica triquinata, Filmy Angelica

Cryptotaenia canadensis, Honewort

Daucus carota, Queen Anne’s Lace

Eryngium yuccifolium, Rattlesnake Master

Ligusticum canadense, Appalachian Osha or Angelico

Myrrhis odorata, European Sweet Cicely

Osmorhiza claytonii, Sweet Cicely

Osmorhiza longistylis, Long Style Sweet Cicely

Pastinaca sativa, Wild Parsnip

Sanicula canadensis, Short-styled Snakeroot

Sanicula gregaria, Clustered Snakeroot

Zizia aurea, Common Golden Alexander

Apocynaceae

Amsonia tabernaemontana, Blue Star

Apocynum cannibinum, Dogbane

Asclepias exaltata, Poke Leaved Milkweed

Asclepias incarnata, Swamp Milkweed

Asclepias quadrifolia, Four-Leaved Milkweed

Asclepias syriaca, Common Milkweed

Asclepias tuberosa, Butterfly Weed

Matelea carolinensis, Carolina Milkvine

Vinca minor, Vinca or Periwinkle

Araliaceae

Aralia racemosa, Spikenard

Aralia spinosa, Devil’s Walking Stick

Hedera helix, English Ivy

Eleuthrococcus sp., Siberian Ginseng

Panax quinquefolius, American Ginseng

Tetrapanax papyrifer, Rice Paper Plant  

Aristolochiaceae

Isotrema macrophyllum, Dutchman’s Pipevine

Aristolochia serpentaria, Virginia Snakeroot

Asarum canadense, Wild Ginger

Asarum splendens. Asian Wild Ginger

Hexastylis arifolia, Little Brown Jugs

Asteraceae

Achillea borealis, Native Yarrow

Achillea millifolium, Yarrow

Ambrosia artemisiifolia, Common Ragweed *

Ambrosia trifida, Great Ragweed

Anacyclus pyrethrum, Pelliatory

Antennaria plantagnifolia, Rosy Pussy-Toes

Arctium minus, Common Burdock

Arnoglossum atriplicifolium, Pale Indian Plantain

Artemisia absinthium, Wormwood

Artemisia annua, Sweet Annie

Artemisia vulgaris, Mugwort*

Aster novae-anglia, Alma Potschke

Aster oblongifolus, Aromatic Aster

Bidens frondosa, Beggar’s Ticks

Bigelowia nuttallii, Nutalls Rayless Goldenrod

Boltonia asteroides, Wavy Aster

Centaurea cyanus, Bachelor’s Button

Chrysanthemum morifolium, Gong-ju-hua and Bo-ju-hua

Chrysogonum virginianum, Green and Gold

Chrysopsis mariana, Golden Aster

Cichorium intybus, Chicory

Cirsium discolor, Field thistle

Cirsium sp., Thistle

Conoclinum coelestinum, Blue Mist or Hardy Ageratum

Coreopsis latifolia

Coreopsis major, Whorled Coreopsis

Coreopsis sp., Ornamentals

Dahlia pinnata, Dahlia

Echinacea angustifolia, Narrow-leaved Purple Coneflower

Echinacea laevigata, Native Appalachian Echinacea

Echinacea paradoxa, Ozark Coneflower

Echinacea purpurea, Eastern Purple Coneflower

Echinacea tennesseensis, Tennesse Purple Coneflower

Elephantopus tomentosa/carolinianus, Elephant’s Foot

Erechtites heiraciifolius, Pilewort

Erigeron annus, Annual Fleabane

Erigeron philadelphicus, Daisy Fleabane

Erigeron pulchellus, Robin’s Plantain

Eupatorium perfoliatum, Boneset

Eupatorium serotinum, Thoroughwort or Late Boneset

Eurybia divaricata, White Heart-leaved or Wood Aster

Eurybia macrophyllum, Big Leaf Aster

Euthamia graminifolia, Grass-Leaved Goldenrod

Eutrochium maculatum, Spotted Joe-Pye Weed

Eutrochium steelei, Appalchian Joe-Pye Weed

Galinsoga ciliata,  Galinsoga or Quickweed

Helianthus angustifolius, Swamp Sunflower

Helianthus grosseserratus, Sawtooth Sunflower

Helianthus maximilianii, Maximillian Sunflower

Helianthus mollis, Ashy Sunflower

Helianthus niveus, Showy Sunflower

Helianthus tuberosus, Jerusalem Artichoke

Heliopsis helianthoides, Oxeye Sunflower

Hieracium venosum, Rattlesnake weed

Inula helenium, Elecampane

Ionactis linariifolius, Stiff-leaved Aster

Krigia montana, Mountain Dwarf Dandelion

Lactuca canadense, Wild Lettuce

Leucanthemum vulgare, Ox-Eye Daisy

Liatris aspera, Rough Blazing Star

Liatris pycnostachya, Prairie Blazing Star

Liatris spicata, Blazing Star or Gayfeather

Marshall mohrii, Barbara’s Buttons

Nabalus altissimus, White Lettuce or Gall of the Earth

Packera anonyma, Small’s Ragwort

Packera aurea, Golden Ragwort

Parthenium integrifolium, Wild Quinine

Petasites japonica, Giant Coltsfoot, Fuki*

Pityopsis graminifolia, Narrow-leaf Silk Grass

Pseudognaphalium obtusifolium, Rabbit Tobacco or Sweet Everlasting

Ratibida pinnata, Prairie or Gray-headed Coneflower

Rudbeckia hirta, Black Eyed Susan

Rudbeckia laciniata, Sochan or Tall Yellow Coneflower

Rudbeckia fulgide, Orange Coneflower

Rudbeckia maxima, Giant/Great/Large Coneflower

Santolina chamaecyparissus, Lavender Cotton

Senecio vulgaris, Common Groundsel

Silphium laciniatum, Compass Plant

Silphium perfoliatum, Cup Plant

Silphium wasiotense, Appalachian Rosinweed

Silphium trifoliatum, Whorled Rosinweed

Smallanthus uvedalia, Leafcup or Bear’s Foot 

Silybum marianum, Milk Thistle

Solidago arguta, Atlantic Goldenrod

Solidago bicolor, Silverrod

Solidago curtisii Mountain Decumbent Goldenrod

Solidago canadensis, Canada Goldenrod

Solidago flexicaulis Zigzag Goldenrod

Solidago nemoralis, Gray Goldenrod

Solidago odora, Anise Scented Goldenrod

Solidago rugosa, Wrinkled Leaf Goldenrod

Solidago speciosa, Showy Goldenrod

Solidago sphacelata, Autumn Goldenrod

Sonchus oleraceus, Common Sow Thistle  

Stokesia laevis, Stoke’s Aster

Symphyotrichum cordifolium, Common Blue Wood Aster

Symphyotrichum dumosum, Rice Button Aster

Symhpyotrichum ericoides, White Heath Aster

Symhpyotrichum laeve, Smooth Blue Aster

Symphyotrichum patens, Late Purple Aster

Symphyotrichum pilosum, Frost Aster

Symphyotrichum puniceum, Swamp Aster

Symphyotrichum undulatum, Wavyleaf Aster

Tanacetum parthenium, Feverfew

Tanacetum vulgare, Tansy 

Taraxacum officinale, Dandelion

Tristem perfoliatum, Horse Gentian or Feverwort

Verbesina alternifolia, Wingstem

Verbesina virginica, White Crownbeard

Vernonia altissima, Ironweed

Xanthium spinosum/strumarium, Cockleburr

Youngia japonica, Asian Hawksbeard

Balsaminaceae

Impatiens capensis, Spotted Jewelweed

Impatiens pallida, Pale or Yellow Jewelweed

Berberidaceae

Caulophyllum thalictroides, Blue Cohosh

Epimedium sp., Horny Goat Weed

Jeffersonia diphylla, Twin Leaf

Podophyllum peltatum, Mayapple  

Bignoniaceae

Campsis radicans, Trumpet Vine

Boraginaceae  

Anchusa ochroleuca, Yellow Alkanet

Anchusa officinalis, Anchusa Azure

Borago officinalis, Borage

Cynoglossum virginiana, Hound’s Tounge

Hydrophyllum sp., Waterleaf

Mertensia virginica, Virginia Bluebells

Myosotis sp., Forget-Me-Not

Phacelia bipinnatifida, Fern-leaved Phacelia

Pulmonaria officinalis, Lungwort

Symphytum grandiflorum, Running Comfrey Hydicote Blue*

Symphytum officinale, Comfrey

Symyphyum uplandicum, Russian Comfrey

Brassicaceae

Armoracia rusticana, Horseradish

Barbarea verna, Cress

Brassica rapa, Field Mustard/Wild Rutabaga

Capsella bursa-pastoris, Shephard’s Purse

Cardamine hirsuta, Wintercress

Cardimine laciniata, Cut-leaved Toothwort

Cardamine pensylvanica, Pennsylvania Watercress

Draba verna, Vernal Whitlow Grass

Erysimum sp. Wallflower

Iberis sempervirens, Candytuft

Lepidium campestre, Resourceful Person’s Pepper

Lunaria annua, Money Plant

Nasturtium officinale, Watercress

Orychophragmus violaceus, Chinese Violet Cress

Buxaceae

Pachysandra procumbens, Allegheny Spurge

Cactaceae

Cylindropuntia imbricata, Tree Cholla

Cylindropuntia x viridiflora, Rat Tail Cholla

Echinocereus triglochidiatus, King Cup Cactus

Opuntia humifusa, Eastern Prickly Pear

Opuntia spp., Prickly Pear

Campanulaceae

Campanula americana, Tall Bellflower

Campanula divaricata, Southern Harebell

Laurentia (or Isotoma) fluviatilis, Blue Star Creeper

Lobelia cardinalis, Cardinal Flower

Lobelia inflata, Indian Tobacco

Lobelia puberula Downy Lobelia

Lobelia siphilitica, Great Blue Lobelia

Lobelia spicata, White Lobelia

Lobelia spp., Lobelia

Triodanis perfoliata, Venus Looking Glass

Caprifoliaceae

Lonicera japonica, Japanese Honeysuckle*

Lonicera sempervirens, Southeastern Native Honeysuckle or Coral Honeysuckle

Valeriana officinalis, Valerian

Caryophyllaceae

Cerastium fontanum ssp. vulgare, Mouse-eared chickweed

Dianthus armeria, Deptford Pink

Dianthus deltoides, Maiden Pink

Dianthus spp., Sweet William

Saponaria officinalis, Bouncing Bet or Soapwort

Silene caroliniana, Wild Pink, Catchfly

Silene ovata, Blue Ridge Catchfly

Silene stellata, Starry Campion, Widow’s frill

Silene virginica, Fire Pink

Silene vulgaris, Maiden’s Tears or Bladder Campion

Stellaria media, Common Chickweed

Stellaria pubera, Great Chickweed

Valerianella locusta, Corn Salad or Mache

Celastraceae

Celastrus orbiculatus, Oriental Bittersweet*

Euonymus fortunei, Wintercreeper*

Cistaceae

Lechea minor, Thymeleaf Pinweed

Cleomaceae

Cleome hassleriana, Spider flower

Convolvulaceae

Calystegia spp., Bindweed

Convolvulus arvensis, Morning Glory*

Cuscuta sp., Dodder

Ipomoea coccinea, Small Red Morning Glory

Ipomoea hederacea Ivy Leaf Morning Glory

Ipomoea purpurea, Common Morning Glory*

Crassulaceae

Hylotelephium spectabile, Autumn Joy

Hylotelephium telephioides, Allegheny Stonecrop. Locally Rare

Sedum telephioides, Live Forever

Sedum ternatum, Wild Stonecrop

Cucurbitaceae

Gynostemma pentaphyllum, Jiaogulan* (INVASIVE!)

Diapensiaceae

Galax urceolata, Galax

Shortia galacifolia, Oconee Bells

Ephedraceae

Ephedra sp., Mahuang or Mormon Tea

Equisetaceae

Equisetum arvense, Field Horsetail

Equisetum hyemale affinis, Scouring Rush

Ericaceae

Chimaphila maculata, Striped Pipsissewa

Gaultheria procumbens, Wintergreen

Leucothoe fontanesiana, Dog Hobble

Monotropa hypopitys, Pine Sap

Monotropa uniflora, Ghost Pipe or Indian Pipe

Euphorbiaceae

Acalypha sp., Three-seeded Mercury

Chamaesyce maculata, Spotted Spurge

Euphorbia corollata, Flowering Spurge

Euphorbia cyparissias, Graveyard Plant or Cypress Spurge*

Euphorbia lathyris, Mole Plant or Gopher Spurge

Euphorbia maculata, Prostrate Spurge

Ricinus communis, Castor Bean  

Fabaceae

Amorpha fruitcosa, Desert False Indigo

Amphicarpa bracteata, Hog Peanut

Apios americana, Groundnut

Astragalus canadensis, Canadian Milkvetch

Astragalus propinquus, Astragalus

Baptisia australis, Wild Indigo

Baptisia leucantha, White False Indigo

Baptisia, Decadence Lemon Meringue cultivar

Desmanthus illinoensis, Prairiehuasca

Desmodium glutinosum, Pointed Leaf Tick Trefoil

Desmodium nudiflorum, Naked Flower Tick Trefoil

Genista tinctoria, Dyer’s Broom

Lathyrus latifolia, Sweet Pea

Lespezeda spp.

Lupinus spp., Lupines*

Securigera varia, Crown Vetch

Senna hebecarpa, Northern Wild Senna

Tephrosia virginiana, Devil’s Shoestrings

Thermopsis villosa, Golden Banner

Trifolium campestre, Low Hop Clover

Trifolium pratense, Red Clover

Trifolium repens, White Clover

Vicia sp., Vetch

Wisteria frutescens, Native Wisteria

Gentianaceae

Gentian sp., True Blue Gentian

Gentiana andrewsii, Andrew’s or Bottle Gentian

Gentiana lutea, Yellow Gentian

Gentiana tibetica, Tibetan Gentian

Obolaria virginica, Woodland Pennywort or Coy Gentian  

Geraniaceae

Geranium maculatum, Wild Geranium

Geranium molle, Dove’s Foot Geranium

Hypericaceae

Hypericum gentianoides, Orangegrass

Hypericum perforatum, St. John’s Wort

Hypericum prolificum, Shrubby St. John’s Wort

Hypericum punctatum, Spotted Saint John’s Wort

Hypercium sp., St. Andrew’s Cross

Lamiaceae

Agastache foeniculum, Anise Hyssop

Betonica officinalis, Hedgenettle

Blephilia ciliata or hirsuta, Downy wood mint

Caryopteris x clandonensis, Bluebeard

Collinsonia canadensis, Richweed, Horsebalm or Stoneroot

Glechoma hederacea, Ground Ivy, Alehoof or Gill Over the Ground*

Lamiastrum galeobdoblon, Herman’s Pride Archangel* 

Lamium aplexicaule, Henbit

Lamium purpureum, Purple Dead Nettle

Lavandula spp., Lavender (Munstead, Elegance Purple, Czech)

Leonurus cardiaca, Motherwort

Leonurua sibiricus, Siberian Motherwort

Lycopus europaeus, Europe Bugleweed*

Lycopus virginicus, American Bugleweed

Melissa officinalis, Lemon Balm

Mentha longifolia, Habek Biblical Mint

Mentha piperita, Peppermint

Mentha spp., Mints* Invasive

Monarda didyma, Bee Balm or Oswego Tea

Monarda fistulosa, Wild Bergamot

Monarda punctatum, Spotted Bee Balm

Nepeta cataria, Catnip

Ocimum sanctum, Holy Basil

Origanum vulgare, Oregano

Perilla frutescens, Shiso

Physostegia virginiana, Obedient Plant  

Prunella vulgaris, Heal-All or Self Heal

Pycnanthemum montanum, Thinleaf Mountain Mint

Pycnanthemum muticum, Clustered Mountain Mint

Pycnanthemum sp., Mountain Mint

Salvia lyrata or urticifolia, Lyre Leaf Sage

Salvia officinalis, Garden Sage

Salvia guaranitica, Black and Blue Sage

Salvia miltiorrhiza, Red Sage/Denshen

Salvia rosmarinus, Rosemary

Salvia sclarea, Clary Sage

Salvia spp., More Ornamental Sages

Scutellaria baicalensis, Chinese Skullcap

Scutellaria elliptica, Hairy Skullcap

Scutellaria integrifolia, Helmet or Rough Skullcap

Scutellaria lateriflora, Mad Dog Skullcap

Teucrium chamaedrys, Creeping Germander

Thymus vulgaris, Thyme varieties    

Linaceae

Linium usitatissimum, Flax

Loganiaceae

Spigelia marilandica, Indian Pink

Malvaceae

Althea officinalis, Marshmallow

Hibiscus coccineus, Swamp Hibiscus

Hibiscus moscheutos, Rose Mallow

Hibiscus spp., more ornamental and native varieties

Hibiscus trionum, Flower-of-an-Hour

Malva neglecta, Common Mallow or Cheese Mallow

Sida sp., Sida

Montiaceae

Claytonia virginica, Spring Beauty

Phemeranthus sp. (probably teretifolius).  Appalachian Rock Pink or Flame Flower.  This sp. though not rare, is restricted to rocky outcrops. Located on Onion Rock.   

Moraceae

Fatoua villas, Mulberry Weed*

Myricaceae

Comptonia peregrina, Sweet Fern

Nyctaginaceae

Mirabilis jalapa, 4 o’clocks

Oleaceae

Jasminum nudiflorum, Winter Jasmine

Onagraceae

Circaea quadrisulcata or lutetiana, Enchanter’s Nightshade

Gaura biennis, Beeblossom

Ludwigia alternifolia, Seedbox

Oenothera biennis, Evening Primrose

Onethera fremontii, Shimmer

Oenothera fruticosa, Sundrops

Oenothera speciosa, Pink Ladies or Mexican Primrose

Orobanchaceae

Agalinus tenuifolia, Common Gerardia

Aureolaria flava, False-foxglove or Oak-leech

Aureolaria virginia, Downy False Foxglove

Conopholis americana, Bear Corn

Epifagus virginiana, Beechdrops

Orobanche minor, Common Broomrape

Pedicularis canadensis, Lousewort 

Oxalidaceae

Oxalis corniculata, Creeping Wood Sorrel

Oxalis montana, Mountain Wood Sorrel

Oxalis stricta, Common Yellow Wood Sorrel

Paeoniaceae

Paeonia sp., Peony

Papaveraceae  

Corydalis micrantha subsp. australis, Southern Corydalis or Scrambled Eggs

Dicentra canadensis, Squirrel Corn

Dicentra cucullaria, Dutchman’s Breeches

Dicentra spectabilis, White and Pink Bleeding Hearts

Eschscholzia californica, California Poppy

Papaver rhoeas, Common Poppy

Papaver somniferum, Opium Poppy

Papaver orientale, Turkish Poppy

Sanguinaria canadensis, Bloodroot

Stylophorum diphyllum, Wood Poppy or Celandine

Passifloraceae

Passiflora incarnata, Passionflower

Passiflora lutea, Yellow Passionflower

Phrymaceae

Mimulus ringens, Monkey Flower

Phryma leptostachya, Lopseed  

Phytolaccaceae

Phytolacca americana, Pokeweed

Plantaginaceae

Chelone lyonii, Turtlehead

Chelone spp., Turtleheads

Digitalis purpurea, Foxglove

Penstemon spp., Beardtongue

Penstemon calycosus, Longsepal Beardtongue

Penstemon digitalis, Foxglove Penstemon

Penstemon hirsutus, Hairy Beardtongue

Plantago lanceolata, Lance Leaf Plantain

Plantago major, Wide Leaf Plantain

Plantago rugelii, Black Seed Purple Stem Wide Plantain

Veronica americana, American Brookline

Veronica beccabunga, Water Forget-Me-Not

Veronica peduncularis, Georgia Blue

Veronica persica, Bird’s Eye Speedwell

Veronica serpyllifolia, Thyme-leaved Veronica

Veronicastrum virginicum, Culver’s Root

Plumbaginaceae

Ceratostigma plumbaginoides, Plumbago

Polemoniaceae

Phlox carolina, Carolina Phlox

Phlox spp., Phlox

Phlox stolonifera, Creeping Phlox

Phlox subulata, Emerald Blue Phlox

Polygonaceae

Eriogonum allenii, Yellow Buckwheat

Fallopia multiflora, Heshouwu or Foti

Fallopia scandens, Climbing Wild Buckwheat

Polygonum spp., Knotweed, Smartweed,

Polygonum tenue, Pleatleaf Knotweed

Rumex acetosella, Sheep Sorrel

Rumex crispus, Curly Dock

Rumex obtusifolia, Obtuse Yellow Dock

Rumex sanguineus, Bloody Dock

Tovara virginiana, Virginia Jumpseed

Portulacaceae

Portulaca oleracea, Purslane

Primulaceae

Anagallis arvensis, Scarlet Pimpernel

Lysimachia ciliata v.purperea

Lysimachia clethroides, Gooseneck Loosestrife

Lysimachia japonica, Dwarf Creeping Jenny “minutissima”

Lysimachia lanceolate, Lance-leaved Loosestrife

Primula auricula, Yellow Mountain Cowslip

Primula meadia, Shooting Star

Ranunculaceae

Actaea pachypoda, Doll’s Eyes

Actaea podocarpa, Mountain Bugbane

Actaea racemosa, Black Cohosh

Anemone pulsatilla, Pasqueflower, Wind Flower, Easter Flower

Anemone quinquefolia, Wood Anemone

Anemone virginiana, Thimbleweed

Aquilegia canadensis, Columbine

Aquilegia spp., ornamental Columbines

Clematis virginiana, Virgin’s Bower

Clematis spp., Ornamental Clematis

Delphinium exaltum, Tall Larkspur

Delphinium tricorne, Wild Larkspur

Helleborus orientalis, Lenten Rose

Hepatica acutiloba, Sharp-lobed Hepatica

Hepatica nobilis, Liverwort, Liverleaf

Hydrastis canadensis, Goldenseal

Ranunculus abortivus, Small-flowered Crowfoot

Ranunculus bulbosus, Bulb-bearing Buttercup

Thalictrum dioicum, Meadow Rue

Trautvetterria carolinensis, Carolina Tassel Rue

Xanthorhiza simplicissima, Yellowroot

Rosaceae

Agrimonia parviflora, Small Flowering Agrimony

Agrimonia rostellata, Beaked Agrimony

Alchemilla vulgaris, Lady’s Mantle

Aruncus dioicus, Goatsbeard

Filipendula rubra, Meadowsweet or Queen of the Prairie

Fragaria sp., Strawberry

Geum sp., Avens

Gillenia stipulata, American Ipecac

Potentilla canadensis, Dwarf Cinquefoil

Potentilla indica, Indian Strawberry

Potentilla simplex, Common Cinquefoil

Sanguisorba minor, Salad Burnet

Rubiaceae

Diodia virginiana, Buttonweed

Galium aparine, Cleavers

Galium lanceolatum, Wild Licorice/Lance-leaved Galium

Galium latifolium, Wideleaf Bedstraw

Galium odorata, Sweet Woodruff

Galium pedemontanum

Houstonia purpurea, Purple Houstonia    

Mitchella repens, Partridgeberry or Twin Flower (Species of concern)

Rubia tinctorum, Madder

Sherardia arvensis, Blue Field Madder*

Rutaceae

Ruta graveolens, Rue

Saururaceae

Anemopsis californica, Yerba Mansa

Houttuynia sp., Vietnamese Coriander*

Saururus cernuus, Lizard’s Tail

Saxifragaceae

Astilbe biternata, Appalachian Goat’s-beard

Astilbe sp., Ornamental

Heuchera americana, American Alumroot

Heuchera spp., Coral Bells

Micranthes micranthidifolia, Branch Lettuce

Mitella diphylla, Miterwort or Bishop’s Cap

Tiarella cordifolia, Foam Flower

Scrophulariaceae

Scrophularia nodosa, Figwort

Verbascum blattaria, Moth Mullein

Verbascum phoeniceum, Bouquet Mullein

Verbascum olympicum, Greek Mullein

Verbascum thapsus, Mullein

Solanaceae

Brugmansia versicolor, Apricot Angel’s trumpet

Datura metel, Indian Thornapple

Datura stramonium, Datura/Jimson weed

Nicandra physalodes, Apple of Peru

Nicotiana sp., Tobacco

Solanum americanum, Black Nightshade

Solanum carolinense, Carolina Horse Nettle

Talinanceae

Talinum panicualtum, Jewels of Opar or Fame Flower

Urticaceae

Laportea canadensis, Wood Nettle

Pilea pumila, Clearweed

Urtica dioica, Stinging Nettle*

Verbenaceae

Verbena hastata, Blue Vervain

Verbena stricta, Hoary Vervain

Verbena urticifolia, White Vervain

Violaceae

Hybanthus concolor, Eastern Green Violet

Viola blanda, Sweet white Violet

Viola hastata, Halberd-leaved Violet

Viola pedata, Birdfoot Violet  

Viola pallens, Northern White Violet

Viola palmata, Early Blue Violet

Viola pubescens, Yellow Woodland Violet

Viola sororia var. sororia, Blue or Confederate Violet

Vitaceae

Parthenocissus quinquifolia, Virginia Creeper

Vitis sp., Fox Grape

Vitis sp., Scuppernong

Vitis sp., Grapes (Venus Seedless)

FERNS:

Aspleniaceae

Asplenium platyneuron, Ebony Spleenwort

Asplenium montanum, Mountain Spleenwort

Athyriaceae

Athyrium niponicum, Japanese Painted Fern

Dennstaedtiaceae

Pteridium aquilinum, Bracken Fern

Dryopteridaceae

Polystichum acrostichoides, Christmas Fern

Onocleaceae

Matteuccia struthiopteris, Ostrich Fern

Ophioglossaceae

Botrypus virginianus, Rattlesnake Fern or Sang-pointer

Osmundaceae

Osmunda regalis, Royal Fern

Sinopteridaceae

Adiantum capillus-veneris or pedatum, Maiden Hair Fern

Woodsiaceae

Athyrium filix-femina subsp. angustum or filix- femina subsp. aspleniodes, Lady Fern

Onoclea sensibilis, Sensitive Fern

Woodsia obtusa, Bluntlobe Cliff Fern

Polypodiaceae

Pleopeltis polypodioides, Resurrection Fern

Polypodium appalachianum, Appalachian Polypody

Thelypteridaceae

Phegopteris hexagonoptera, Broad Beech Fern

Thelypteris noveboracensis, New York Fern

LYCOPHYTES:

Huperziaceae (a clubmoss family)

Huperzia lucidula, Shining Clubmoss

Lycopodiaceae (a clubmoss family)

Diphasiastrum digitatum, Fan Clubmoss

Lycopodium spp., Running Cedar

Selaginellaceae

Selaginella sp.

MOSSES:

Brachytheciaceae

Bryoandersonia sp.

Fissidentaceae

Fissidens sp.

Orthotrichaceae

Ulota crispa

Polytrichaceae

Atrichium sp.

Polytrichum commune 

Thuidiaceae

Thuidium sp.

FUNGI:

Agaricaceae

Lycoperdon

Boletaceae

Strobilomyces, Old Man of the Woods

Cantherellaceae

Cantharellus sp., Chanterelle

Corydicypitaceae

Cordyceps sp.

Helotiaceae

Chlorociboria aeruginascens, Blue-Green Stain Fungus

Hygrophoreaceae

Hygrophorus flavescens, Yellow Waxy Cap

Hypocreaceae

Hypomyces, Lobster Mushroom

Marasmiaceae

Marasmius rotula, Pinwheel Mushroom

Morchellaceae

Morchella esculenta, Morel

Nidulariaceae

Bird’s Nest Fungus

Omphalotaceae
Lentinula edodes, Shiitake

Omphalotus illudens, Jack O’ Lantern

Physalacriaceae

Armillaria sp. Honey Mushrooms

Pluerotaceae

Pleurotus ostreatus, Oyster Mushroom

Polyporaceae

Fistulina hepatica, Beefsteak Fungus

Laetiporus sp. Chicken of the Woods

Phellinus robiniae, Locust Polypore

Trametes versicolor, Common Turkey Tail

Trichaptum biforme, Violet-toothed Polypore

Pyronemataceae

Scutellinia scutellata, Eyelash Cup Fungus

Russulaceae

Russula sp., Russula

Lactarius spp.

Sebacinaceae

Tremellodendron pallidum, False Jelly Coral

Stereaceae

Stereum ostrea, Oyster Shaped Stereum

Xylariaceae

Xylaria polymorpha, Dead-man’s Fingers

LICHENS:

Umbilicaria americanus, Rock Trype

Usnea

SLIME MOLDS:

Lycogala epidendrum, Wolf’s Milk Slime Mold

Stemonitis splendens, Chocolate Tube-Slime

FAUNA

SIGNIFICANT INVERTEBRATES:

Halyomorpha halys, Brown Marmorated Stink Bug- Invading the home and land!!!!

Hypochilidae, Lampshade Spider. One of the oldest known lineages of living spiders.  Lives in wide funnel/lampshade shaped webs on rock boulders or overhangs.  Found on boulder near waterfall.

Mantis religiosa, European mantis

Meloe americanus, Blue-humpbacked-blister Beetle

Ground Wasps

BUTTERFLIES:

Nymphalidae

Danaus plexippus, Monarch

Polygonia comma, Comma

Papilonidae

Battus philenor, Pipevine Swallowtail

Papilio troilus, Spicebush Swallowtail

Pieridae

Phoebis sennae Suplhur

Pieris rapae, Cabbage White

BIRDS: (Seen or heard on the Property)

Accipitridae

Accipiter cooperi, Cooper’s Hawk

Circus hudsonius, Northern Harrier

Bombycillidae

Bombycilla cedrorum, Cedar Waxwing

Cardinalidae

Cardinalis cardinalis, Cardinal

Passerina ciris, Painted Bunting

Passerina cyanea, Indigo Bunting

Piranga olivacea, Scarlet Tanager

Cathartidae

Cathartes aura, Turkey Vulture

Certhidae

Tree Creeper

Columbidae

Zenaida macroura, Mourning Dove

Corvidae

Corvus sp., Crow

Cyanocitta cristata Bluejay

Cuculidae

Coccyzus erythrothalmus, Black-Billed Cuckoo

Fringillidae

Coccothraustes vespertinus, Evening Grosbeak

Spinus tristis, American Goldfinch

Hirundinidae

Hirundo rustica, Barn Swallow

Mimidae

Dumetella carolinensis, Gray Catbird

Mimus polyglottos, Northern Mockingbird

Paridae

Poecile carolinensis, Carolina Chickadee

Baeolophus bicolor, Tufted Titmouse

Parulidae

Mniotilta varia, Black and White Warbler

Seiurus aurocapilla, Oven Bird

Setophaga citrina, Hooded Warbler

Passerilidae

Junco hyemalis, Dark-Eyed Junco

Melospiza melodia, Song Sparrow

Pipilo erythrophthalmus, Eastern Towhee

Other Sparrows

Phasianidae

Grouse

Pheasant

Meleagris gallopavo, Wild Turkey

Picidae

Colaptes auratus, Northern Flicker

Dryobates pubescens , Downy Woodpecker

Dryocopus pileatus, Pileated Woodpecker

Leuconotopicus villosus, Hairy Woodpecker

Melanerpes carolinus, Red-bellied Woodpecker

Regulidae

Regulus satrapa, Goldencrowned Kinglet

Strigidae

Bubo virginianis, Great Horned Owl

Megascops asio, Eastern Screech Owl

Strix varia, Barred Owl

Trochilidae
Archilochus colubris, Ruby-Throated Hummingbird

Troglodytidae

Thryothorus ludovicianus, Carolina Wren

Troglodytes hiemalis, Winter Wren

Turdidae

Sialia sp., Blue Bird

Turdus migratorius, American Robin

Tyrinnidae

Sayornis phoebe, Eastern Phoebe or Flycatcher

Tytonidae

Tyto alba, Barn Owl

Vireonidae

Vireo olivaceus, Red-Eyed Vireo

We added Gambusia Mosquito Fish to Emerald Pond, gifts from Doug and Yanna