I love a good quote. We have a chalkboard by our front door where Hart or I leave a quote to ponder throughout the week. This has been such a fun little ritual. I also love taking photos. So this post is an offering of two of my loves- my photographs, with an overlay of quotes to ponder. I will be adding to this page regularly.

My eyes widened at the sight of the perfectly intact body of a dead Luna Moth that lay below the nesting box. I gathered the eggs with the curve of my shirt and scooped the moth up with the other hand, then wandered down the hill to show Hart. I couldn’t help but make meaning of these gifts coming in unison, right before I left for my 50th birthday dark cave retreat. Birth and death giving itself to me, simultaneously.

It’s been one moon cycle since I went into the cave, and I am beginning to find words to describe the experience. One thing I know is that I was not in there long enough. The work was just beginning, and then I came out. I didn’t get to the other side. 3 days and 3 nights was too short, so I will be returning one day.

I have longed to do a dark cave retreat for years but it just never happened— until it did. You know your life is overly full when the best 50th birthday party you can think of is to be left alone. And lean into the Mystic.

The week before, I began a cleanse- no black tea, dairy, sugars, or processed foods of any kind and very little food at all, actually. Mostly soups, buckwheat and ferments. The closer I came to the day of entering the cave, the less food I desired.

My friend Frank, who had done a week-long cave retreat in this very cave in Tennessee, came with me and was my ally through the process. He stayed up the road and would come at random times (3 times total) during my retreat and ring a vibratone at which I would ring a bell in response, our signal that all was well. A mystic in his own right, Frank supports our community with the medicine of the starry heavens. I’m so grateful for you, Frank!

When I arrived, I placed the roses, yarrow and mugwort I brought from my garden atop a boulder next to the cave’s entrance and filled my Sicilian bowl with water from the stream that runs under our home, setting Nadia’s crow stuffie next to it. I gave my prayers and intentions along with these offerings, and felt as ready as I ever would, to step into the darkness. I would be coming out of the cave head first, 3 days later, at my birth time, on my 50th birthday.

How incredibly huge this cave is! My dear friend Patrick, whose family has stewarded this land for 3 generations, is 56 and has been exploring the cave’s nooks and crannies since he was 5 and is still finding new places! Patrick is a gem through and through and was also a wonderful support in this process. He loaned me a hard hat fitted with headlamp and the 3 of us carried in my supplies for the stay, including two gallons of spring water. The cave’s entrance looks like a vagina as you can see in the only photo I took while there. The temperature drops immediately as you enter, and the moistness becomes palpable.

The smell of the cave took my breath away! I was really worried the smell would be dank and musty, but instead it was alluringly pleasing. Really, I had braced myself to be so physically uncomfortable for the time, thinking it would be smelly, cold and claustrophobic, but instead I felt like I was in an ancient temple of incredible beauty and cleanliness. I stayed warm and my body never ached like it always does when I go camping. The cave had a strong feminine energy that held me the whole time I was inside. Her walls shined in the light of my headlamp like hammered copper. In some areas the ceiling dripped water, and my first impulse was to lick a droplet. So I did. It tasted so so good, like a healing elixir. The curves, multiple caverns and rooms, the format and textures—I was left speechless at this beauty, I really had no idea!

Serpentining hundreds of feet within, Patrick and Frank led me to an open space big enough to stand up and lie down, and this is where I made my nest. I set up my bedding: a tarp, wool blanket, then a yoga mat, two inflatable sleeping mats, a cotton sheet and then my sleeping bag and pillow. The ground is damp and cool and can suck the warmth right out of a human, and so I put on my cave attire: cotton tanktop, silk undershirt then wool shirt then down jacket; cotton long johns and wool pants; wool sox and hat and only when I was inside of my sleeping bag did I take off the jacket and wool pants.

Next, I set up my pee area, because I know you are wondering- what did I do with my bodily wastes while in there? I laid a small bit of plastic down then set up a two-gallon bucket with lid and a roll of toilet paper inside of a ziplock bag, a few feet from my bed. It is pitch black in the cave- darker than any darkness I have ever experienced, and just locating the pee area a few feet away from my station was tricky. I could easily get lost. I had to move slowly and methodically, on my hands and knees, patting the ground and using my limbs like eyes.

I did a 3-day fast while in the cave because 1) you don’t want to eat in there…the environment just doesn’t lend itself to that. And 2) I didn’t want to poop. I brought plastic bags and yogurt containers to deal with that in case I did, but fortunately, I never had to deal with a bowel movement.

Once I was all set up, I said goodbye to Patrick and Frank and they made their way out with Patrick sharing a verse from that lovely song “You are beautiful, you are courageous,” the last words to linger in the air as I blew out the candle and gave myself over to total darkness and silence. No sounds from the outside world made it down here.

I lie down and fell asleep right away, and awoke feeling unusually rested and peaceful, not really having a sense of how long I had slept. I wanted to pray aloud and sing but the silence was so profound, it felt insulting to pierce it with my voice. I thought about the huge camel crickets and the little spiders I had seen on my way in, and the rats Frank had told me about and whom I could hear scurrying near, and I remembered, “I am a guest here,” in the home of these creatures and this water that never sees light and this cool, damp clay and patches of dry, powdery dirt. I appreciated how receptive they all were of me.

Eventually, I felt ready to set up my spiritual container. I called in the directions, my guardians, gave thanks and offered up my intention. I began to see symbols on the walls, some recognizable but others I had never seen, like watching a busy moving wall paper or something. When I closed my eyes, they went away. I put my hand in front of my face to see if I could make out the shape of my fingers. Nope, not a one. These symbols came and went the whole time I was there. What time was it? Night or day? What did it matter? I became disoriented quickly and just accepted it as part of the experience.

The water dripped in the distance every few minutes- drip, drip, drip- I did not realize a drop of water could be so loud! I sat in meditation, breathing slowly and deeply, in and out, being the witness to whatever feelings and sensations arose, and then watched them pass. Suddenly, a new sound arose- what is that sound?? At first I thought I was hearing a helicopter but then it got closer and closer until, Zompp- the sound landed on me! A stink bug! I had brought a stink bug into the cave with me! I couldn’t believe it.

The stink bug stayed nearby the entire time I was in the cave. Come on, are you serious? I kept thinking, “You have this whole enormous cave to fly off to, go somewhere else!” But no. It wanted to stay next to me for whatever reason. I attempted to tune in with the stink bug, but I never could get over my annoyance with it enough to do that, so instead I tuned out.

I stood up and stretched my arms overhead, leaning from side to side. Inside the absence of distraction, I was free to give my presence to whatever was most alive in me. And unbeknownst to me, the first thing that beckoned my attention was the grief of my mother’s death. It had been over a year since she died, and I have felt the waves of grief many a time, but something about being alone in the belly of the earth allowed the floodgates to open. I cried and cried and called out for her. “Mama, mama, I miss you, I want you.” I saw her in her cotton nightgown and I ached a horrible ache to hug her and be held by her. I cried until there were no more tears and the ache had passed, and I felt her loving spirit right next to me.

Next was another wave of grief. I wept over my belated partner Frank’s abrupt death. It has been almost 14 years and there are still tears to be cried. And then I felt the essence of my paternal grandmother and cried over her absence in my life. I wept at the frailty of being human. My body shook with tears. I felt remorse for things I did or didn’t do, the ways I have failed as a mother and wife and prayed sincerely for my daughters and marriage. Then my little white kitty Junipurr came to me as a companion in the darkness. I swear I heard her purr.

I sat down, feeling worn out, but in that good relieving way, like when you have just completed  hard work, and now you can rest. I felt peaceful. I lie there, suspended in nothingness. Then Frank made his first appearance and rang the vibratone. I could not see him or any light, but could hear the beautiful sound in the distance and I rang my bell back. I was so grateful for this check-in. It was a welcome lifeline for me to the outside world.

I sang every song I could think of while I was in this cave. I loved it. Song after song arose out of me. I spent the majority of my time in the fetal position. Just floating in the watery womb of my Earth Mother, resting in peace. I really cannot put into words the love and comfort that I felt emanating from this place. I was also overcome with gratitude at times.

I would lay on my back or sit up in half-lotus. I’d do child’s pose, cat/cow stretches, forward fold, or stand and shake my body, swinging my arms and tapping my marma points. Then back down into fetal position again. I gave myself over to deep time.

I fell asleep again and was awakened by a train? No- it was Frank ringing the vibratone again- hadn’t he just done that? It seemed like no time had passed since the last check-in.

Later I found out that Frank made his first check- in about 15 hours after I’d been in there, his second one about 12 hours after that and the last one, he waited another 24 hours. Time really became warped. At the end of my stay, I was just beginning to catch on to what was day and what was night. The cave inhaled at dawn and exhaled at dusk, and I could actually feel a temperature and pressure change.

The amount of people, plants, animals and places that came alive in my heart while I was alone  was intense! Whomever I would think of, I prayed for their life. Bless their life. Weep weep weep for the blessing of their life! The first two days were fairly peaceful and blissful and then the hard work really started.

It began with a period of “What the hell am I doing in here? How boring! I have things to do, places to be! Get me out of here!” I moved through it mostly, but not fully. I knew I needed more time to do/be nothing, to accept that reality. But it was hard. Uncomfortable. But always, I felt very loved and held in this process.

I did not sleep, at least I don’t think I did, nearly as much as I had imagined I would. I asked for dream visions, but I only had two dreams I can recall, both of which were silly and mundane, like a flashmob party for pulling invasive weeds and making burritos on an abandoned road corner in Ireland.

I worked through my pettiness. My worries of who was going to take care of things on our property the way I think they should be taken care of and oh so much more. And I still have heaps of work to do on myself out here in the light. It really is most humbling.

The most difficult thing I experienced was facing my own death. Like I would never make it out alive. At one point I became paralyzed with the fear that my support had been murdered, no one knew where I was, and I would not be able to find my way out. Since I couldn’t count on it being daylight to use as an affirmation I was near the entrance/exit, I could wander the caverns endlessly, weak from no food. I definitely did not have confidence I could get out of the cave on my own as there are many turns. In fact, when I did finally exit with Patrick and Frank behind me letting me lead the way, I made a wrong turn.

I let myself go down another rabbit hole- that a boulder had rolled in front of the entrance or that it had caved in from an avalanche and I was stuck in here. I knew this was farfetched, yet it consumed me and I saw my rotting corpse and the bones of other corpses. I needed to let myself face these fears and suffering. To die before I die.

At this point, it seemed like it had been 2 days since Frank had checked on me. Why was he not coming? We had left the check-in times rather vague on purpose. “Oh please, Frank, please come, I am done with this” I thought. I am complete. I am ready to go. Still, he didn’t come. I had torturing thoughts that dragged on and on. It was Holy Terror. I was past my own death and feeling into the the suffering of the world, past and present. The grief, horror, sadness, pain- all of it was flashing before me.

Then suddenly Frank rang, and instead of ringing the bell back, I called out to him, whining. I asked him what day it was and he answered, “It’s dark out now and you have 16 hours left before your birth time.” I told him I was having a very hard time and then wept.  He gave wise words of support and it gave me the strength and courage to carry on. And then he left and I had some time of peace, yes a real deep peace. But then the fears started to rise again.

It dawned on me that this work was not for everyone. It seems very natural for me to go into a cave alone, but I don’t think it’s for everyone. Then I fell asleep for a brief time and awoke to such a sense of wanting to be done with this hard work. That’s why I know I need to go back- I didn’t make it through those deep layers to the other side, but came out prematurely. I wanted to stay longer, but I have chosen the life of homemaker, property manager, earth steward, teacher, wife and mother and had an agreement for how long I’d be gone.  Also, I could sense the longer I stayed in there, the harder it would be to re-enter this bright, loud world.

And suddenly, as if it had actually been no time at all, Frank was back and candle light was with him this time- the signal it was nearing my birth time, and I was finished here.

Frank had carried in and lit up the Dogwood candle holder Jason made me that I knew I wanted as the first light. I didn’t even think about it having 5 candle shelves, but Frank said it was my cave birthday cake, representing each decade. I felt so tender and raw, like a newborn might feel. I shared with Patrick and Frank some of my experience and they lovingly listened and held space for this significant moment of my life. I said a goodbye gratitude prayer and packed up and felt it was very important for me to carry out my own pee. Gah- that was heavy, and I was feeling very weak as I meandered through the dark tunnels.

And then I saw the light, Oh the day! I put the pee bucket aside and fell prostrate onto the leaf litter and buried my face in it. A Virginia Creeper sprout looked so dear and special, when in my garden, I am pulling them out left and right! I am an above ground creature!! I love the light! The shadows! The green and growing things! Rain was gently falling. My friends had spread around roses to welcome me back. I gave the land right outside the cave the blessing salts I had brought, some soil from home, more flower petals. Patrick’s girlfriend Leah made me the most delicious green smoothie and earrings with vertebrae from a snake she found on the land, that she painted with a glow-in-the-dark substance, to remember my cave time. Thank you, Leah!!

The gifts of the Cave were many. They are still coming. I would say one big one is how the frantic-ness of my everyday life was made so blatantly evident. It played out like a movie before my eyes. The craziness of how we we live our lives in this modern world. How hurried and busy. I don’t want to live like that anymore. It has worn me out and is not healthy for me, the ones around me, the planet- none of us.  I turned off my cell phone for 5 days during this time, no internet, no schedule. How can I allow this reckoning in the darkness to be integrated into my daily lit-up life? I have not figured that out yet, but I am very aware that it must change. I sense it already changing.

Another gift is that same knowing that comes through the birth and death portal, labor and the passing of a loved one, of how precious and miraculous and fragile life truly is. Why do we waste it on quarreling or judging or killing or oppressing each other and ourselves? How can we live our daily lives embodying the humbling wisdom that everything is temporary, that each moment is a treasure? We are endlessly consuming all this unnecessary stuff- information, entertainment, material possessions, excess foods etc… in order to avoid facing our own mortality and imperfections. By facing the dark, I was able to shed a light on this knowing in a deeper way.

In the cave, the superficiality of my persona slowly falls away and what is essential has more space to be.

Perhaps it was having a pond at our house growing up that eventually led me to become a plantwalker. One of the most intriguing ecosystems to lead a child back to nature, I would sit, walk, swim and wade for hours in that pond, watching tadpoles, catching frogs, being nibbled on by fish, arranging aquatic plants into buoyant fairy houses, avoiding snakes, feeling squishy mud between my toes, catching bream and bass, floating on my back, listening to a heavenly voice that calmed and supported me. I wish I had a photo of that pond, but here is at least a picture of the house that held me as a child.

Eventually, I stepped away from the pond into the woods nearby and began building fairy forts in the forest. I remember vividly sitting under those trees, after collecting all kinds of leaves, twigs, moss, and nuts, and being overcome with a feeling of love and protection while I was creating these fairy villages. It was, at the time, my unconscious way of communing with Earth Mother and Sky Father. I climbed trees, explored the river bank, ate dirt, looked for skulls and bones of animals, dug holes, and hid inside huge azalea bushes for fun. All this time, I was hearing the pulse of earth but had no human mentors, teachers or guides to help me understand how to steward these things with care.  Still, being engaged everyday like this with the outdoors, I was building a relationship with the plant and animal people, that would, as the years went on, inform my heart and mind of how to be a loving citizen of the world.

I do know my father had a strong love of nature and was outside more than in. I followed him around and saw that he picked white pine needles and chewed on them as he walked around the woods, so that was my first introduction into eating something wild! He was an avid hunter and thus I grew up on venison burgers, sausage, stew, and steak; eating frog legs, quail, wild turkey roasts, snapping turtle and catfish stew, and I attribute all that to feeding my wildness.

In high school, I veered away from these things, thinking city life, fake nails, tanning beds, fancy outfits, rock concerts and aims for a showy car and a highfalutin job would be a much better way to live my life. This went on for some years, until I ended up in Bellingham, Washington, at Fairhaven College. I suddenly had a strong pull to get the hell out of dodge and applied to 3 far away universities within the US, not quite brave enough to travel out of the country yet. My mom and I drove across the country so I could have my red Bronco II there with me on campus, and I was quite a sight, I am sure. Dressed in a polka dot mini skirt, jelly flats, polka-dot shirt with padded shoulders, hair and make-up all done up, unloading all my pumps, fancy dresses, matching bedroom decor and several caboodles of makeup— I stood out in the mossy granola setting of Western Washington like a foreign implant.

Once there, it took about half a year, but suddenly I remembered my connection to nature again, and found a role in the student garden and fell in love with Joules Graves’ music about people of the earth tribe and became a member of the food co-op and learned about quinoa and submerged myself regularly on top of Sehome Hill, a forested sanctuary inside the city, and started to hear voices again from the plant world.

Oh, Stinging Nettle was the first one to talk. “You didn’t think I could sting like that, did you? I am not an ant! But I am the plant version. Drink me, take me home. Eat me.” I did, and I still didn’t really know what I was doing.

Soon after, I was at a friend’s house and had a terrible stomach ache. She offered me chamomile tea, and I thought she meant Lipton Tea, which was the only thing I associated with the word tea. Sweetened or unsweetened tea, with ice or without? This question had been posed to me at every restaurant I grew up going to, at my grandmother’s, at any church event- basically anywhere I went in the South. And I thought tea was the grossest thing, sweetened or unsweetened. I didn’t want to drink any of it! So I told her no, but she explained this was an herbal tea, reminded me the story of Peter Rabbit, and to give it a try. She poured hot water over the Celestial Seasonings tea bag and while it steeped, I held that warm mug in my hands and after drinking it, my tummy ache was completely gone! I couldn’t believe it. But I was now a Believer.

I was around 19 or 20-years-old at the time, and as I write this, I am almost at the half a century point of my life. The walk I have had with the plants has been a combo of crawls, climbs, hikes, runs, meanders, glides and strolls. I have walked behind, beside and under so many human, plant, animal and celestial teachers, that I couldn’t possibly recap them all in this story. To all of you not mentioned, I am indebted to you. To all of you that stand out in significant enough memory to include here, I bow to you for holding my hand and heart on this glorious journey of becoming a plantwalker.

My college companion, Leif, showed me you can buy bulk herbs at the Food Co-op and brew them up into tea. Dandelion, Burdock and Licorice roots decoction sent my DNA into memory recall. Cameron, head of the Fairhaven community garden, first introduced me to cultivation. But I thought having a garden was more about writing graphs on paper of what to grow, when and where, than actually doing it! Then Alison, my roommate in a Bellingham duplex, taught me how to ‘just do it’ without all that nerdiness, and we grew an abundant garden out back! As an intern with Michael Pilarski, aka Skeeter, of Friends of the Trees, in 1993, he made me conscious of the work that needed to be done to help provide for the next seven generations. Balm of Gilead, Cottonwood tree, led me into medicine making and soothed my earthly wounds. Taylor, the boy who stole my heart, opened me up to watching trees leaf out and flower and how to capture those moments with a camera. We spent many an hour in the darkroom developing prints of nature.

In 1995, I moved to Lopez Island, on Leif’s family land, with about 11 other people, as we attempted to ‘go back to the land.’ Ironwood, aka Ocean Spray, taught me how to bend its strong branches to make a wigwam that could shelter me for months. Leif and his brother Kier included me on foraging escapes that brought back cedar for smudging, wild onions for seasoning, chickweed, plantain, dandelion and violet for salad, Salal and Salmon berries for breakfast and aromatic pine needle tea.

Living outdoors and under the stars for months on end really got me submerged into the plant world. I was starting to taste everything and once had a close encounter with Death Camas, thinking it was an Allium. I stood before Poison Hemlock, realizing that this plant world could take me on a journey of no return if not careful. I was in awe of these beings who could kill me, feed me, clothe me, house me, make me well when sick, and give me the material for my favorite thing- writing. The influence they had on my life infiltrated every pore of my being. I could live without humans and animals (not that I wanted to), but not without plants.

Western Washington opened me back up to my love of plants, and then I came back South. In 1997, I lived with my grandmother for a summer and began speaking with the plants more. I made a special spot on her land— a place where I would go each morning and pray. One morning, when I arrived at the spot, I heard the plants screaming at me, “Don’t let them mow us down!” I jumped because it was an unfamiliar sensation to hear plants screaming. I told them not to worry— this was the back part of Gram’s land and she didn’t mow it.

I went to work at the roadside stand where I sold peaches and watermelons, and when I arrived back at the house, sure enough, the whole area had been completely mowed down! I went crying to Gram and shouted, “What is going on?!” and she told me that the bamboo was taking over and she had hired someone to clear it all out. I cried as if my friends had died, which they had. And I realized I had a gift to hear the voice of the plants and that I needed to use it well.

Some years later, I found myself in upstate New York, learning from a woman named Naomi who had Paradise Gardens, and witnessed what you could do with a piece of land to turn it into a botanical sanctuary. She taught me how to grow herbs and to celebrate birthdays with the seasonal foods of the garden; how to make beauty with spiral gardens and to encourage frog habitats and to leave some areas for the wild. Behind her house was a forest with a Blue Cohosh patch I’ve yet to see the likes of anywhere else. When I first stumbled upon it one May evening, I began crying. I didn’t know what plant this was, but it had such unusual leaf color and shape and the vibration it exuded was palpable. I sat there and wept in joy. It was one of those significant moments of your life that shifts who you are. I think in that moment, I forever became a plant woman.

I began collecting houseplants and turning my home into Jumanji. I talked to them and listened to them. Sometimes it is too much, hearing the needs of plants. Hearing their desires. It could take up all my time if I just solely listened to that. I would have not time for humans, and sometimes I think I may end up the old lady on the mountain who only talks to plants. And animals, too. I hear animals similarly. But I have sharpened my focus to be with the plant people.

When I found my permanent place on the planet, in the Blue Ridge Mountains of Western North Carolina, I began planting things outside left and right. I moved in and out of rentals for years, but that didn’t matter. I had the overwhelming desire to plant trees, bulbs, bushes, flowers, vegetables- basically anything that would grow, and tend it with all my heart. Grow a sanctuary and you will end up with a sanctuary. Wherever you go. That was my motto. And look where I eventually ended up- Herb Mountain Farm, one of the most paradisiacal places I have ever seen!

At 32, I began a relationship with Frank Cook, a plant man like no other, an embodiment of the Green Man, and by default, my relationship with plants grew deeper. He taught me to “Eat something Wild everyday.” You are what you eat. He taught me to eat the rainbow- eat foods that have lots of color- red, blue, purple, yellow, orange and especially Green! He took me around the world with him to learn directly from plants and healers and his very presence expanded my consciousness. One of my highlights with him was being in South Africa in a field of huge bushes, as far as you could see, and he said, “Do you know who this is?” and I said. “No.” And he said, “This is Ashwagandha, Withania somnifera, in its natural habitat.” And I about passed out as I had only known Ashwagandha as this little struggling annual in my garden. We dug some root and it smelled like a horse, and this smell was euphoric to me. I slept with that root under my pillow for over a year.

Frank Cook in a field of Ashwagandha

Around this same time, I also met Hart, the man who would later become my husband and be the most influential person of my life in my walk with plants. I began working on his farm, at Herb Mountain, where he informally apprenticed me in conscious earth stewardship. And still is to this day.

In the forest, I am beholden by the plants and trees and able to observe and relax and be reminded of the mystery and magnificence of Creation. In the garden, I get a chance to play my hand at this creation. I love my walk with plants in both these ways. Sometimes I say, “I am off to the wild lands.” To get a break from the domesticated lands. Trying to cultivate—ok—manipulate earth into what you want her to be and do is hard work. There must be a balance for me in just observing the glory and abundance that naturally occurs without any human help, in my walk with the plants. I am a plant walker and will be until I die.

In 2014, Luke Cannon, aka Luke Learning Deer, helped us compile a species list of the flora we have met on the property. Over the past few years, Marc Williams has been a valued investor in not only updating this list, but bringing plants to help broaden it! (And helping plant and tend them, too!)

It begins with a description of our farm, and then a list, starting with trees and shrubs, of all perennials here, as well as some animal life! Enjoy! This list is continually being updated, a true living document!


Species Inventory of Herb Mountain Farm 

Weaverville, North Carolina  

begun 2014, last updated May 2022

Compiled by Luke Cannon, Marc Williams and Mary Plantwalker

This list begins a general survey of the biota of Herb Mountain Farm Botanical Sanctuary. The property, starting at roughly 2,600ft and rising to about 3,800ft, primarily consists of West facing slopes but also includes some South, Northeast and North facing slopes. Herb Mountain peak rises to about 4,200ft just above, which is one of the major ridges of the Craggy Mountain range, just to the East. 

The property of 138 acres primarily consists of young Mixed Pine Oak forest but also includes cultivated gardens and residential, retreat and educational infrastructures along the flatter Western edge. Areas of older growth and Rich Cove forest offer higher diversity within the woodland, especially within coves along the drainages. Onion Rock, a Rocky Outcrop/Escarpment, exists along the upper ridge at about 3,600ft which deserves further investigation for uncommon species.  There are two smaller westwardly draining streams, Banjo Branch and Dry Branch, that converge on the property in the wooded area of the Nature Trail, just below the old home site(stone chimney) before running down to Maney Branch.  The Nature Trail makes a mile-long loop around the lower end of the property.

With hope this list will continue to grow and serve to aid those who will steward and enjoy this land for generations to come.

Trees, shrubs and plants are listed in alphabetical order under their scientific names by family, then genus, species and common name. Rare plants for the Appalachians will be indicated as “Rare”; plants of non-native or cultivated status will have an * following their names and “Invasive” if they are particularly so.  Plants that were only keyed to genus will be labeled with “sp.” following the generic name. Species of concern refers to its increase in dying or showing excess disease or insect damage. Only perennial or self-seeding annuals are listed. Mushrooms and fungi will be listed similarly. Noted Birds are listed by their common names. More Ferns, Grasses, Rushes, Sedges, Minerals, Invertebrates and Fauna, as well as Flora, are hoped to be added in time. 

TREES AND SHRUBS:

Adoxaceae 

Sambucus canadensis, Common Elderberry

Viburnum acerifolium, Maple-leaved Viburnum

Viburnum dentata, Arrowwood

Viburnum nudum, Possumhaw

Viburnum prunifolium, Black Haw

Viburnum rhytidophyllum, Leatherleaf Viburnum

Viburnum trilobum, High Bush Cranberry or Crampbark

Viburnum X pragense, Prague Viburnum

Anacardiaceae

Rhus glabra, Smooth Sumac 

Rhus typhina, Staghorn Sumac

Annonaceae

Asimina triloba, Common Paw-Paw

Aquifoliaceae

Ilex crenata, Japanese Holly*

Ilex decidua, Winter Holly

Ilex meservaea, Blue Maid Hollies*

Ilex opaca, American Holly

Berberidaceae

Berberis thunbergii, Barberry Bagatelle*

Nandina domestica, Heavenly Bamboo*

Betulaceae

Alnus sp., Alder

Betula lenta, Sweet Birch

Betula nigra, River Birch

Carpinus caroliniana, Musclewood

Corylus americana or cornuta, Mt. Hazelnut

Ostrya virginiana, Hop Hornbeam

Buxaceae

Buxus sempervirens, Boxwood*

Sarcococca hookeriana, Pumila Sweetbox*

Calycanthaceae

Calycanthus floridus, Sweetshrub or Sweetbubbas or Carolina Allspice

Cannabaceae

Celtis sp. Hackberry

Caprifoliaceae

Lonicera caerulea, Honeyberry or Haskap*

Celastraceae

Euonymus atropurpureus, Burning Bush or American Wahoo

Clethraceae

Clethra alniflora, Pepperbush

Cornaceae

Cornus alternifolia, Alternate-leaf Dogwood

Cornus amomum, Silky Dogwood

Cornus drummondii, Roughleaf Dogwood

Cornus florida, Flowering Dogwood (species of concern)

Cornus kousa*

Cornus mas, Cornelian Cherry

Cornus sericea, Red-osier Dogwood, Red Gnome variety 

Cupressaceae

Chamaecyparis pisifera, Vintage Gold Cypress*

Juniperus chinensis, Angelica Blue Juniper*

Juniperus conferta, Gold Coast*

Juniperus horizontales, Gold strike*

Juniperus virginiana, Eastern Red Cedar

Thuja spp., ArborVitae*

Ebenaceae

Diospyros virginiana, Persimmon

Diospyros kaki., Asian Persimmon* 

Ericaceae

Kalmia latifolia, Mountain Laurel

Oxydendron arboreum, Sourwood

Rhododendron austrinum, Southern Flame Azaela 

Rhododendron calendulaceum, Flame azalea

Rhododendron maximum, Rosebay Rhododendron or Great Laurel

Rhododendron periclymenoides, Pinxter Azaela

Rhododendron sp., Swamp Azaela

Rhododendron spp., Rhododendron 

Vaccinium altomontanum, Blue Ridge Blueberry

Vaccinium corymbosum, Highbush Blueberry

Vaccinium pallidum or stamineum Blueberries*

Fabaceae

Albizia julibrissin, Mimosa*

Caragana arborescens, Siberian Pea Shrub*

Cercis canadensis, Eastern Redbud

Gymnocladus dioicus, Kentucky Coffee Tree

Robinia pseudoacacia, Black Locust (species of concern)

Fagaceae

Castanea mollisima, Chinese Chestnut*

Fagus grandifolia, American Beech

Quercus alba, White Oak (species of concern)

Quercus falcata, Southern Red Oak

Quercus illicifolia, Bear/Scrub Oak

Quercus macrocarpa, Bur Oak

Quercus montana, Chestnut Oak

Quercus rubra, Northern Red Oak

Quercus stellata, Post Oak

Quercus velutina, Black Oak

Gingkoaceae

Ginko biloba, Gingko*

Grossulariaceae 

Ribes rotundifolium, Appalachian Gooseberry

Hamamelidaceae

Fothergilla sp., Witch Alder

Hamamelis virginiana, Witch Hazel

Hydrangeaceae

Deutzia sp. “Dwarf”

Hydrangea arborescens, Wild Hydrangea

Hydrangea quercifolia, Oak Leaf Hydrangea

Hydrangea spp., Ornamental varieties

Philadelphus inodorus, Scentless Mock Orange

Illiaceae

Illicium floridanum, Star Anise Tree*

Iteaceae

Itea virginica, Virginia Sweetspire 

Juglandaceae

Carya cordiformis Bitternut Hickory

Carya glabra, Pignut Hickory

Carya ovalis, Red Hickory

Carya tomentosa, Mockernut Hickory

Carya illinoinensis, Pecan

Juglans nigra, Black Walnut

Lamiaceae

Clerodendrum sp., Glorybower*

Vitex spp.

Lauraceae

Lindera benzoin, Spicebush

Sassafras albidum, Sassafras

Lythraceae

Lagerstromeia indica, Crepe Myrtle Siren Red Whit VII*

Magnoliaceae 

Liriodendron tulipifera, Tulip Tree

Magnolia acuminata, Cucumber Magnolia

Magnolia fraseri, Fraser or Mountain Magnolia or Wahoo

Magnolia grandiflora, Southern Magnolia*

Magnolia macrophylla, Big Leaf Magnolia

Magnolia liliifolia, Japanese Magnolia*

Magnolia stellata, Star Magnolia*

Magnolia virginiana, Sweet Bay

 

Malvaceae

Hibiscus syriacus, Rose of Sharon*

Maclura pomifera, Osage Orange

Tilia heterophylla, Appalachian Basswood or Linden

Tilia sp., European cultivar*

Moraceae

Ficus carna, Dessert King*

Morus alba, White Mulberry* (species of concern)

Morus rubra, Red Mulberry

Nyssaceae

Nyssa sylvatica, Black Gum or Tupelo

Oleaceae

Abeliophylum distichum, White Forsythia*

Chionanthus virginicus, Fringe Tree or Grandaddy Graybeard

Forsythia sp., Forsythia*

Fraxinus americana, White Ash 

Fraxinus spp., Ash (species of concern)

Ligustrum sinense, Privet* Invasive

Syringa sp., Lilac*

Pinaceae

Picea glauca, Dwarf Alberta Spruce*

Pinus strobus, Eastern White Pine

Pinus virginiana, Scrub Pine

Pinus taeda, Loblolly Pine

Tsuga canadensis, Eastern Hemlock (species of concern)

Tsuga canadensis, Weeping Hemlock ‘Pendulum”

Tsuga caroliniana, Carolina Hemlock (this species is at risk of becoming threatened and endangered, worldwide)

Platanaceae

Platanus occidentalis, American Sycamore

Rhamnaceae

Frangula alnus, “Asplenifolia”*

Ziziphus mauritiana, Jujube Date*

Rosaceae

Amelanchier arborea, Tree Serviceberry or Juneberry

Aronia sp., Chokeberry

Chamaenomeles sp. Flowering Quince*

Crataegus spp., Hawthorn

Kerria japonica, Yellow Rose of Texas*

Malus sp., Apple*

Physocarpus opulifolius, Ninebark

Prunus armeniaca, Apricot* 

Prunus avium, Bird Cherry*

Prunus pensylvanica, Fire Cherry

Prunus serotina, Black Cherry (species of concern)

Prunus sp., Cherry*

Prunus sp., Native Plum

Prunus tomentosa, Nanking Cherry*

Pyrus communis, Pear*

Rosa multiflora, Multiflora Rose* Invasive

Rosa rugosa, Rugosa Rose*

Rosa virginiana, Virginia Rose

Rosa spp., Rose Ornamentals*

Rubus occidentalis, Black Cap Raspberry 

Rubus phoenicolasius, Wineberry*

Rubus sp., Blackberry*

Rubus sp., Raspberry*

Sorbus americana, Rowan or Mountain Ash

Spirea japonica* Very Invasive 

Spirea prunifolia, Old-Fashioned Bridle Wreath Spirea*

Rubiaceae

Cephalanthus occidentalis, Buttonbush

Gardenia jasmanoides, Gardenia*

Rutacee

Ptelea trifoliata Wafer Ash or Hoptree

Poncirus trifoliata, Trifoliate Orange* “Flying Dragon”

Salicaceae

Salix babylonica, Weeping Willow

Salix caprea, Dwarf Pussy Willow*

Salix discolor, Pussy Willow

Salix sp., Willow

Sapindaceae

Acer japonica, Japanese Maple Vitifolium

Acer negundo, Eastern Box Maple or Box Elder 

Acer pensylvanicum, Striped Maple

Acer rubrum, Red Maple

Acer saccharinum, Silver Maple

Acer saccharum, Sugar Maple

Aesculus sylvatica, Painted Buckeye

Koelreuteria paniculata, Goldenrain Tree*

Simaroubaceae 

Ailanthus altissima, Tree of Heaven* Invasive

Styracaceae

Halesia tetraptera, Carolina Silverbell

Styrax americanus, American Snowbell

Taxaceae

Taxus sp., Yew*

Theaceae

Cammelia sinensis, Tea* 

Stewartia sp., Stewartia (species of concern)DIED?

Thymelaeaceae

Daphne odora, Daphne*

Dirca palustris, Leatherwood

Ulmaceae

Ulmus rubra, Slippery Elm

HERBACEOUS PLANTS (MONOCOTS)

Acoraceae

Acorus calamus, Sweet Flag or Calamus

Agavaceae

Camassia scilloides, Eastern Camas or Quamash Lily

Hosta spp., Hosta*

Yucca filamentosa, Yucca*

Amaryllidaceae 

Allium spp., Ornamentals*

Allium cernuum, Nodding Onion

Allium tricoccum, Ramps

Allium vineale, Field Garlic or Wild Onion*

Narcissus pseudonarcissus, Daffodil

Araceae 

Amorphophallus konjac, Voodoo Lily*

Arisaema dracontium, Green Dragon DIED?

Arisaema triphyllum, Jack-in-the-Pulpit, Indian Turnip 

Asparagaceae

Hesperaloe parviflora, Red Yucca

Maianthemum racemosum, Solomon’s Plume

Polygonatum biflorum or pubescens, Solomon’s Seal

Polygonatum kingianum, Huang Jing* 

Asphodelaceae  (Xanthorrhoeaceae)

Asphodelus albus, Asphodel*

Hemerocallis fulva, Day Lily*

Colchicaceae 

Uvularia perfoliata, Perfoliate Bellwort 

Uvularia sessilifolia, Sessile Bellwort

Commelinaceae 

Commelina communis, Asiatic Dayflower*

Tradescantia ohiensis, Spiderwort

Cyperaceae 

Carex flaca, Blue Zinger Sedge

Carex pensylvanica, Pennsylvania Sedge

Carex plantaginea, Plantain Leaved Sedge 

Carex spp., Sedges

Dioscoraceae 

Dioscorea polystachya, Cinnamonvine, Air Potato* Invas  

Dioscorea villosa, Wild Yam

Iridaceae 

Crocosmia sp., Lucifer’s Tongue*

Iris cristata, Dwarf Crested Iris 

Iris fulva, Copper Iris

Iris pallida, Orris Root

Iris pseudoacorus, Yellow Flag*

Iris spp., multiple varieties all over property*

Juncaceae 

Juncus effusus, Soft Rush (by lower pond) 

Juncus tenuis, Path Rush 

Hyacinthaceae

Muscari atlanticum, Grape Hyacinth*

Ornithogalum umbellatum, Star of Bethlehem*

Liliaceae 

Erythronium sp., Trout Lily

Lilium michauxii, Carolina Lily

Lilium superbum, Turk’s Cap Lily

Liriope muscari, Liriope*

Medeola virginiana, Wild or Indian Cucumber

Prosartes lanuginosa, Yellow Mandarin or Fairy Bells

Scilla siberica, Siberian Squill*

Melanthiaceae 

Chamelirium luteum, False Unicorn Root

Trillium cuneatum, Sweet Betsy or Purple Toadshade

Trillium catesbaei, Nodding Pink Flowering Trillium

Trillium erectum, Stinking Willie

Trillium luteum, Yellow Trillium

Trillium rugelii, Southern or Tall Nodding Trillium    

Veratrum viride, White Hellebore or Cornhusk-lily 

Nartheciaceae

Aletris farinosa, Unicorn Root

Orchidaceae

Aplectrum hyemale, Adam and Eve or Puttyroot   

Cypripedium acaule, Pink Lady’s Slippers

Galearis spectabilis, Showy Orchid

Goodyera pubescens, Rattlesnake Orchid 

Spiranthes cernua, Nodding Ladies’ Tresses   

Tipularia discolor, Cranefly Orchid

Poaceae

Anthoxanthum odorata, Eastern Vernal Sweetgrass

Arundinaria gigantea, Rivercane

Arundo donax, Peppermint Stick or Striped Giant Reed*

Dichanthelium clandestinum, Deer-Tongue Grass

Dichanthelium sp., Witch Grass

Heirochloe odorata, Ceremonial Sweetgrass*

Leymus arenerius, Blue Lyme Grass*

Microstegium vimineum,  Japanese Stilt Grass*

Miscanthus sinensis,  Chinese Silver Grass*  Invasive

Panicum virgatum, Panicgrass or Switchgrass

Phalaris arundinacea, Reed Canary Grass*

Poa annua, Bluegrass

Schizachyrium scoparium, Little Bluestem

Sorghum halapense, Johnson Grass* Invasive

Smilacaceae 

Smilax glauca, Greenbrier or Sarsparilla

Smilax herbacea, Smooth Carrion Flower

Smilax rotundifolia, Common Greenbriar or Catbriar  

Typhaceae

Typha angustifolia or latifolia, Cattail* (Invasive)

HERBACEOUS PLANTS (DICOTS)

Acanthaceae

Acanthus mollis Bear’s Breeches*

Ruellia caroliniensis, Carolina Wild Petunia

Amaranthaceae

Amaranthus spinosa, Spiny Amaranth* 

Amaranthus spp.

Chenopodium album, Lamb’s Quarter or Goose-foot* 

Anacardiaceae

Toxicodendron radicans, Eastern Poison Ivy

Apiaceae 

Angelica archangelica, Angelica*

Angelica gigas, Angelica*

Angelica triquinata, Filmy Angelica

Cryptotaenia canadensis, Honewort

Daucus carota, Queen Anne’s Lace*

Eryngium yuccifolium, Rattlesnake Master

Ligusticum canadense, Appalachian Osha or Angelico

Myrrhis odorata, European Sweet Cicely*

Osmorhiza claytonii, Sweet Cicely

Osmorhiza longistylis, Long Style Sweet Cicely

Pastinaca sativa, Wild Parsnip*

Sanicula canadensis, Short-styled Snakeroot 

Sanicula gregaria, Clustered Snakeroot

Zizia aurea, Common Golden Alexander 

Apocynaceae 

Amsonia tabernaemontana, Blue Star

Apocynum cannibinum, Dogbane

Asclepias exaltata, Poke Leaved Milkweed*

Asclepias incarnata, Swamp Milkweed

Asclepias quadrifolia, Four-Leaved Milkweed

Asclepias syriaca, Common Milkweed

Asclepias tuberosa, Butterfly Weed

Ascelpias viridiflora, Green Milkweed DIED?

Asclepias verticillata, Whorled Milkweed DIED?

Gomphocarpus physocarpus, Balloon Milkweed*

Matelea carolinensis, Carolina Spinypod

Vinca minor, Vinca or Periwinkle 

Araliaceae 

Aralia racemosa, Spikenard

Aralia spinosa, Devil’s Walking Stick

Hedera helix, English Ivy*

Eleuthrococcus sp., Siberian Ginseng*

Panax quinquefolius, American Ginseng 

Tetrapanax papyrifer, Rice Paper Plant*  

Aristolochiaceae

Isotrema macrophyllum, Dutchman’s Pipevine

Asarum canadense,  Wild Ginger

Asarum splendens. Asian Wild Ginger*

Asteraceae

Achillea borealis, Native Yarrow 

Achillea millifolium, Yarrow

Ambrosia artemisiifolia, Common Ragweed *(Invasive)

Ambrosia trifida, Great Ragweed

Anacyclus pyrethrum, Pelliatory*

Antennaria spp., Rosy Pussy-Toes

Arctium minus, Common Burdock*

Arnoglossum atriplicifolium, Pale Indian Plantain

Artemisia absinthium, Wormwood*

Artemisia annua, Sweet Annie*

Artemisia vulgaris, Mugwort*

Bidens frondosa, Beggar’s Ticks 

Bigelowia nuttallii, Nutalls Rayless Goldenrod

Boltonia asteroides, Wavy Aster

Centaurea cyanus, Bachelor’s Button*

Chrysanthemum morifolium, Gong-ju-hua and Bo-ju-hua*

Chrysogonum virginianum, Green and Gold

Chrysopsis mariana, Golden Aster

Cichorium intybus, Chicory

Cirsium discolor, Field thistle*

Cirsium sp., Thistle

Conoclinum coelestinum, Blue Mist or Hardy Ageratum

Coreopsis latifolia

Coreopsis major, Whorled Coreopsis

Coreopsis sp., Ornamentals*

Dahlia pinnata, Dahlia*

Echinacea angustifolia, Narrow-leaved Purple Coneflower

Echinacea laevigata, Native Appalachian Echinacea

Echinacea paradoxa, Ozark Coneflower

Echinacea purpurea, Eastern Purple Coneflower

Echinacea tennesseensis, Tennesse Purple Coneflower

Elephantopus tomentosa/carolinianus, Elephant’s Foot

Erechtites heiraciifolius, Pilewort

Erigeron annus, Annual Fleabane

Erigeron philadelphicus, Daisy Fleabane

Erigeron pulchellus, Robin’s Plantain

Eupatorium perfoliatum, Boneset

Eupatorium serotinum, Thoroughwort or Late Boneset

Eurybia divaricata, White Heart-leaved or Wood Aster

Eurybia macrophyllum, Big Leaf Aster 

Eutrochium maculatum, Spotted Joe-Pye Weed

Eutrochium steelei, Appalchian Joe-Pye Weed

Galinsoga ciliata,  Galinsoga or Quickweed

Grindelia robusta, Gumweed* 

Helianthus angustifolius, Swamp Sunflower

Asteraceae (Continued)

Helianthus maximilianii, Maximillian Sunflower

Helianthus mollis, Ashy Sunflower

Helianthus tuberosus, Jerusalem Artichoke

Heliopsis helianthoides, Oxeye Sunflower

Hieracium venosum, Rattlesnake weed

Inula helenium, Elecampane*

Ionactis linariifolius, Stiff-leaved Aster

Krigia montana, Mountain Dwarf Dandelion

Lactuca canadense, Wild Lettuce

Leucanthemum vulgare, Ox-Eyed Daisy*

Liatris aspera, Rough Blazing Star

Liatris pycnostachya, Prairie Blazing Star

Liatris spicata, Blazing Star or Gayfeather

Nablus latissimus, White Lettuce or Gall of the Earth

Packera anonyma, Small’s Ragwort

Packera aurea, Golden Ragwort

Parthenium integrifolium, Wild Quinine

Pityopsis graminifolia, Narrow-leaf Silk Grass

Pseudognaphalium obtusifolium, Rabbit Tobacco or Sweet Everlasting

Ratibida pinnata, Prairie or Gray-headed Coneflower

Rudbeckia hirta, Black Eyed Susan

Rudbeckia laciniata, Sochan or Tall Yellow Coneflower 

Rudbeckia fulgide, Orange Coneflower

Rudbeckia maxima, Giant/Great/Large Coneflower

Santolina chamaecyparissus, Lavender Cotton*

Senecio vulgaris, Common Groundsel

Silphium laciniatum, Compass Plant

Silphium perfoliatum, Cup Plant

Silphium trifoliatum, Whorled Rosinweed

Smallanthus uvedalia, Leafcup or Bear’s Foot 

Silybum marianum, Milk Thistle

Solidago arguta, Atlantic Goldenrod

Solidago bicolor, Silverrod 

Solidago curtisii Mountain Decumbent Goldenrod

Solidago canadensis, Canada Goldenrod

Solidago flexicaulis Zigzag Goldenrod

Solidago speciosa, Showy Goldenrod

Solidago sphacelata, Autumn Goldenrod

Sonchus oleraceus, Common Sow Thistle*  

Stokesia laevis, Stoke’s Aster*

Symphyotrichum cordifolium, Common Blue Wood Aster

Symphyotrichum dumosum, Rice Button Aster

Symhpyotrichum ericoides, Heath Aster

Symhpyotrichum laeve, Smooth Aster

Symphyotrichum patens, Late Purple Aster

Symphyotrichum pilosum, White Heath Aster

Symphyotrichum puniceum, Swamp Aster

Symphyotrichum undulatum, Wavyleaf Aster

Tanacetum parthenium, Feverfew*

Tanacetum vulgare, Tansy* 

Taraxacum officinale, Dandelion*

Verbesina alternifolia, Wingstem

Verbesina virginica, White Crownbeard

Vernonia altissima, Ironweed

Xanthium spinosum/strumarium, Cockleburr

Youngia japonica, Asian Hawksbeard*

Balsaminaceae

Impatiens capensis, Spotted Jewelweed 

Impatiens pallida, Pale or Yellow Jewelweed

Berberidaceae

Caulophyllum thalictroides, Blue Cohosh

Epimedium sp., Horny Goat Weed*

Jeffersonia diphylla, Twin Leaf

Podophyllum peltatum, Mayapple  

Bignoniaceae

Campsis radicans, Trumpet Vine

Boraginaceae  

Anchusa ochroleuca, Yellow Alkanet*

Anchusa officinalis, Anchusa Azure*

Borago officinalis, Borage*

Cynoglossum virginiana, Hound’s Tounge

Hydrophyllum sp., Waterleaf

Mertensia virginica, Virginia Bluebells

Myosotis sp., Forget-Me-Not*

Phacelia bipinnatifida, Fern-leaved Phacelia 

Pulmonaria officinalis, Lungwort*

Symphytum officinale, Comfrey* 

Brassicaceae

Armoracia rusticana, Horseradish*

Barbarea verna, Cress*

Brassica rapa, Field Mustard*

Capsella bursa-pastoris, Shephard’s Purse*

Cardamine laciniata, Cut-leaved Toothwort

Cardamine pensylvanica, Pennsylvania Watercress

Draba verna

Erysimum sp. Wallflower

Iberis sempervirens, Candytuft*

Lepidium campestre, Resourceful Person’s Pepper

Lunaria annua, Money Plant*

Nasturtium officinale, Watercress*

Orychophragmus violaceus, Chinese Violet Cress*

Buxaceae

Pachysandra procumbens, Allegheny Spurge

Cactaceae

Cylindropuntia imbricata, Tree Cholla*

Cylindropuntia x viridiflora, Rat Tail Cholla*

Echinocereus triglochidiatus, King Cup Cactus*

Opuntia humifusa, Eastern Prickly Pear

Opuntia spp., Prickly Pear

Campanulaceae 

Campanula americana, Tall Bellflower

Campanula divaricata, Southern Harebell

Laurentia (or Isotoma) fluviatilis, Blue Star Creeper* 

Lobelia cardinalis, Cardinal Flower

Lobelia inflata, Indian Tobacco

Lobelia puberula Downy Lobelia

Lobelia siphilitica, Great Blue Lobelia

Lobelia spp., Lobelia

Triodanis perfoliata, Venus Looking Glass

Caprifoliaceae

Lonicera japonica, Japanese Honeysuckle* Invasive

Lonicera sempervirens, Southeastern Native Honeysuckle or Coral Honeysuckle

Diervilla sessifolia, Bush Honeysuckle

Dipsacus fullonum, Teasle*

Patrinia scabiosifolia, Golden Valerian*

Valeriana jamansii, Indian Valerian*

Valeriana officinalis, Valerian*

Weigelia sp.*

Caryophyllaceae

Cerastium fontanum ssp. vulgare, Mouse-eared chickweed

Dianthus armeria, Deptford Pink*

Dianthus deltoides, Maiden Pink*

Dianthus spp., Sweet William and Super Trouper etc…*

Saponaria officinalis, Bouncing Bet or Soapwort

Silene caroliniana, Wild Pink, Catchfly

Silene ovata, Blue Ridge Catchfly

Silene stellata, Starry Campion, Widowsfrill

Silene virginica, Fire Pink

Silene vulgaris, Maiden’s Tears*

Stellaria media, Common Chickweed

Stellaria pubera, Great Chickweed

Valerianella locusta, Corn Salad or Mache

Celastraceae

Celastrus orbiculatus, Oriental Bittersweet* Invasive

Euonymus fortunei, Wintercreeper* Invasive

Cistaceae

Lechea minor, Thymeleaf Pinweed 

Cleomaceae

Cleome hassleriana, Spider flower or Pink Queen* 

Convolvulaceae 

Calystegia spp., Bindweed

Convolvulus arvensis, Morning Glory*

Cuscuta sp., Dodder

Ipomoea coccinea, Small Red Morning Glory*

Ipomoea hederacea Ivy Leaf Morning Glory* 

Ipomoea purpurea, Common Morning Glory*

Crassulaceae 

Hylotelephium telephioides, Allegheny Stonecrop. Locally Rare

Sedum telephioides, Live Forever

Sedum ternatum, Wild Stonecrop 

Cucurbitaceae

Gynostemma pentaphyllum, Jiaogulan* (INVASIVE!)

Diapensiaceae 

Galax urceolata, Galax

Shortia galacifolia, Oconee Bells

Ephedraceae

Ephedra sp., Mahuang or Mormon Tea*

Equisetaceae

Equisetum hyemale affinis, Scouring Rush

Ericaceae

Calluna vulgaris, Heather*

Chimaphila maculata, Striped Pipsissewa

Gaultheria procumbens, Wintergreen

Leucothoe fontanesiana, Dog Hobble

Monotropa hypopitys, Pine Sap

Monotropa uniflora, Ghost Pipe or Indian Pipe

Pieris japonica, Japanese Andromeda*

Euphorbiaceae 

Acalypha sp., Three-seeded Mercury

Chamaesyce maculata, Spotted Spurge

Euphorbia corollata, Flowering Spurge

Euphorbia cyparissias, Graveyard Plant or Cypress Spurge

Euphorbia lathyris, Mole Plant or Gopher Spurge

Euphorbia maculata, Prostrate Spurge

Ricinus communis, Castor Bean*  

Fabaceae

Amorpha fruitcosa, Desert False Indigo

Amphicarpa bracteata, Hog Peanut

Apios americana, Groundnut

Astragalus canadensis, Canadian Milkvetch

Astragalus propinquus, Astragalus*

Baptisia australis, Wild Indigo

Baptisia leucantha, White False Indigo

Desmanthus illinoensis, Prairiehuasca*

Desmodium glutinosum, Pointed Leaf Tick Treefoil

Desmodium nudiflorum, Naked Flower Tick Trefoil

Genista tinctoria, Dyer’s Broom*

Lathyrus latifolia, Sweet Pea*

Lupinus spp., Lupines*

Securigera varia, Crown Vetch*

Senna hebecarpa, Northern Wild Senna 

Tephrosia virginiana, Devil’s Shoestrings

Thermopsis villosa, Golden Banner

Fabaceae (Continued)

Trifolium campestre, Low Hop Clover*

Trifolium pratense, Red Clover*

Trifolium repens, White Clover*

Vicia sp., Vetch

Wisteria frutescens, Native Wisteria

Gentianaceae 

Gentian sp., True Blue Gentian

Gentiana andrewsii, Andrew’s or Bottle Gentian

Gentiana lutea, Yellow Gentian*

Gentiana tibetica, Tibetan Gentian*

Obolaria virginica, Woodland Pennywort or Coy Gentian

Sabatia angularis, Rose Gentian or Rose Pink  

Geraniaceae 

Geranium maculatum, Wild Geranium

Geranium molle, Dove’s Foot Geranium

Hypericaceae

Hypericum gentianoides, Orangegrass

Hypericum perforatum, St. John’s Wort*

Hypericum prolificum, Shrubby St. John’s Wort

Hypericum punctatum, Spotted Saint John’s Wort 

Hypercium sp. St. Andrew’s Cross

Lamiaceae

Agastache foeniculum, Anise Hyssop*

Blephilia ciliata or hirsuta, Downy wood mint

Collinsonia canadensis, Richweed,Horsebalm or Stoneroot 

Glechoma hederacea, Ground Ivy, Alehoof or Gill Over the Ground* 

Lamiastrum galeobdoblon, Herman’s Pride Archangel* 

Lamium aplexicaule, Henbit*

Lamium purpureum, Purple Dead Nettle*

Lavandula spp., Lavender* (Munstead, Elegance Purple, Czech

Leonurus cardiaca, Motherwort*

Leonurus japonicus, Chinese Motherwort*

Leonurua sibiricus, Siberian Motherwort* Invasive 

Lycopus europaeus, Europe Bugleweed or Gypsywort*

Lycopus virginicus, Bugleweed

Melissa officinalis, Lemon Balm

Mentha longifolia, Habek Biblical Mint*

Mentha piperita, Peppermint

Mentha spp., Mints* Invasive

Monarda didyma, Bee Balm or Oswego Tea*

Monarda fistulosa, Wild Bergamot

Monarda punctatum, Spotted Bee Balm

Nepeta cataria, Catnip*

Ocimum sanctum, Holy Basil*

Origanum vulgare, Oregano*

Perilla frutescens, Shiso*

Perovskia atriplicifolia, Russian Sage*

Physostegia virginiana, Obedient Plant  

Prunella vulgaris, Heal-All or Self Heal*

Pycnanthemum montanum, Thinleaf Mountain Mint

Pycnanthemum muticum, Clustered Mountain Mint

Pycnanthemum sp., Mountain Mint

Rosmarinus spp., Rosemary*

Salvia lyrata or urticifolia, Lyre Leaf Sage

Salvia officinalis, Garden Sage*

Salvia miltiorrhiza, Red Sage/Denshen*

Salvia sclarea, Clary Sage*

Salvia spp., Ornamental Sages*

Scutellaria baicalensis, Chinese Skullcap*

Scutellaria elliptica, Hairy Skullcap

Scutellaria integrifolia, Helmet or Rough Skullcap

Scutellaria lateriflora, Mad Dog Skullcap

Scutellaria parvula var. leonardii, Shale Barren Skullcap

Thymus spp., Thyme varieties*    

Loganiaceae

Spigelia marilandica, Indian Pink DIED

Malvaceae

Althea officinalis, Marshmallow

Hibiscus coccineus, Swamp Hibiscus

Hibiscus moscheutos, Rose Mallow

Hibiscus sabdariffa, Roselle*

Hibiscus spp., Ornamental and Native varieties

Hibiscus trionum, Flower-of-an-Hour*

Malva neglecta, Common Mallow or Cheese Mallow*

Sida sp., Sida

Montiaceae

Claytonia virginica, Spring Beauty

Phemeranthus sp. (probably teretifolius).  Appalachian Rock Pink or Flame Flower.  This sp. though not rare, is restricted to rocky outcrops here. One at Onion Rock.   

Myricaceae

Comptonia peregrina, Sweet Fern

Onagraceae

Circaea quadrisulcata or lutetiana, Enchanter’s Nightshade 

Epilobium sp. Willow Herb

Gaura biennis, Beeblossom

Ludwigia alternifolia, Seedbox

Oenothera biennis, Evening Primrose

Onethera fremontii, Shimmer*

Oenothera fruticosa, Sundrops

Oenothera speciosa, Pink Ladies

Orobanchaceae 

Agalinus tenuifolia, Common Gerardia

Aureolaria flava, False-foxglove or Oak-leech

Aureolaria virginia, Downy False Foxglove

Conopholis americana, Bear Corn 

Epifagus virginiana, Beechdrops

Orobanche minor, Common Broomrape 

Pedicularis canadensis, Lousewort 

Oxalidaceae 

Oxalis corniculata, Creeping Wood Sorrel

Oxalis montana, Mountain Wood Sorrel

Oxalis stricta, Common Yellow wood Sorrel

Paeoniaceae

Paeonia sp., Peony*

Papaveraceae  

Dicentra canadensis, Squirrel Corn

Dicentra cucullaria, Dutchman’s Breeches

Dicentra spectabilis, White and Pink Bleeding Hearts

Eschscholzia californica, California Poppy*

Glaucium flavum, Yellow Horned Poppy

Macleaya cordata, Plume Poppy*

Papaver rhoeas, Common Poppy*

Papaver somniferum, Opium Poppy*

Papaver orientale, Oriental Poppy*

Sanguinaria canadensis, Bloodroot

Stylophorum diphyllum, Wood Poppy or Celandine 

Passifloraceae

Passiflora incarnata, Passionflower

Passiflora lutea, Yellow Passionflower

Phrymaceae 

Mimulus ringens, Monkey Flower

Phryma leptostachya, Lopseed  

Phytolaccaceae 

Phytolacca americana, Pokeweed

Plantaginaceae

Chelone lyonii, Turtlehead

Chelone spp., Turtlehead

Digitalis purpurea, Foxglove*

Penstemon spp., Beardtongue

Penstemon calycosus, Longsepal Beardtongue

Penstemon digitalis, Foxglove Penstemon 

Penstemon hirsutus, Hairy Beardtongue 

Penstemon smallii, Small’s Penstemon

Plantago lanceolata, Lance Leaf Plantain

Plantago major, Wide Leaf Plantain

Plantago rugelii, Black Seed Purple Stem Wide Plantain

Veronica americana, American Brookline

Veronica beccabunga, Water Forget-Me-Not*

Veronica peduncularis, Georgia Blue*

Veronica persica, Birds Eye Speedwell*

Veronica serpyllifolia, Thyme-leaved Veronica*

Veronicatrum virginicum, Culver’s Root

Plumbaginaceae

Ceratostigma plumbaginoides, Plumbago*

Polemoniaceae

Phlox carolina, Carolina Phlox

Phlox spp., Phlox

Phlox stolonifera, Creeping Phlox

Phlox subulata, Emerald Blue Phlox*

Polemonium reptans, Jacob’s Ladder

Polygonaceae

Brunnichia ?

Eriogonum allenii, Yellow Buckwheat

Fallopia multiflora, Heshouwu*

Fallopia scandens, Climbing Wild Buckwheat

Polygonum or Persicaria spp., Knotweed, Smartweed, Polygonum tenue, Pleatleaf Knotweed

Rumex acetosella, Sheep Sorrel*

Rumex crispus, Curly Dock*

Rumex obtusifolia, Obtuse Yellow Dock*

Rumex sanguineus, Bloody Dock*

Tovara virginiana, Virginia Jumpseed

Portulacaceae 

Portulaca oleracea, Purslane*

Primulaceae

Anagallis arvensis, Scarlet Pimpernel*

Lysimachia clethroides, Gooseneck Loosestrife* 

Lysimachia japonica, Dwf Creeping Jenny “minutissima”*

Primula auricula, Yellow Mountain Cowslip*

Primula meadia, Shooting Star

Ranunculaceae

Actaea pachypoda, Doll’s Eyes

Actaea podocarpa, Mountain Bugbane

Actaea racemosa, Black Cohosh

Anemone pulsatilla, Pasqueflower, Wind Flower, Easter Flower*

Anemone quinquefolia, Wood Anemone

Anemone virginiana, Thimbleweed

Aquilegia canadensis, Columbine

Clematis virginiana, Virgin’s Bower

Clematis spp., Ornamental

Delphinium exaltum, Tall Larkspur

Delphinium tricorne, Wild Larkspur

Helleborus orientalis, Lenten Rose*

Hepatica acutiloba, Sharp-lobed Hepatica

Hepatica nobilis, Liverwort, Liverleaf

Hydrastis canadensis, Goldenseal

Ranunculus abortivus, Small-flowered Crowfoot 

Ranunculus bulbosus, Bulb-bearing Buttercup*

Thalictrum dioicum, Meadow Rue

Trautvetterria carolinensis, Carolina Tassel Rue

Xanthorhiza simplicissima, Yellowroot

Rosaceae

Agrimonia parviflora, Small Flowering Agrimony

Agrimonia rostellata, Beaked Agrimony 

Alchemilla vulgaris, Lady’s Mantle*

Aruncus dioicus, Goatsbeard

Duchesnea indica, Indian Strawberry*

Filipendula rubra, Meadowsweet or Queen of the Prairie

Fragaria sp., Strawberry*

Geum sp., Avens

Potentilla canadensis, Dwarf Cinquefoil

Potentilla simplex, Common Cinquefoil 

Sanguisorba minor, Salad Burnet*

Spiraea alba, White Spirea

Spiraea japonica, Japanese Spirea* Invasive

Rubiaceae

Diodia virginiana, Buttonweed

Galium aparine, Cleavers*

Galium lanceolatum, Wild Licorice/Lance-leaved Galium

Galium latifolium, Wideleaf Bedstraw

Galium odorata, Sweet Woodruff*

Galium pedemontanum

Galium rubrum, Madder*

Houstonia purpurea, Purple Houstonia    

Mitchella repens, Partridgeberry or Squaw Vine (name is of Algonquian origin) Species of concern

Rubia tinctoria, Madder*

Sherardia arvensis, Blue Field Madder*

Rutaceae

Ruta graveolens, Rue*

Saururaceae

Anemopsis californica, Yerba Mansa*

Houttuynia sp., Vietnamese Coriander*

Saururus cernuus, Lizard’s Tail

Saxifragaceae 

Astilbe biternata, Appalachian Goat’s-beard

Astilbe sp., Ornamental*

Heuchera americana, American Alumroot

Heuchera spp., Coral Bells

Micranthes micranthidifolia, Branch Lettuce

Mitella diphylla, Miterwort or Bishop’s Cap

Tiarella cordifolia, Foam Flower

Schisandraceae

Schisandra glabra, Magnolia Vine

Scrophulariaceae 

Scrophularia ningpoensis, Xuan Shen*

Scrophularia nodosa, Figwort*

Verbascum blattaria, Moth Mullein

Verbascum phoeniceum, Bouquet Mullein

Verbascum thapsus, Mullein 

Solanaceae 

Brugmansia versicolor, Apricot Angel’s trumpet*

Datura metel?, Indian Thornapple*

Datura stramonium, Datura/Jimson weed

Nicandra physalodes, Apple of Peru*

Nicotiana sp., Tobacco*

Solanum americanum, Black Nightshade

Solanum carolinense, Carolina Horse Nettle

 

Urticaceae 

Laportea canadensis, Wood Nettle

Pilea pumila, Clearweed 

Urtica dioica, Stinging Nettle*

 

Verbenaceae

Verbena hastata, Blue Vervain

Verbena stricta, Hoary Vervain*

Verbena urticifolia, White Vervain 

Violaceae

Hybanthus concolor, Eastern Green Violet

Viola blanda, Sweet white Violet

Viola hastata, Halberd-leaved Violet

Viola pedata, Birdfoot Violet  

Viola pallens, Northern White Violet 

Viola palmata, Early Blue Violet

Viola pubescens, Yellow Woodland Violet

Viola sororia var. sororia, Blue or Confederate Violet

 

Vitaceae 

Parthenocissus quinquifolia, Virginia Creeper

Vitis sp., Fox Grape 

Vitis sp., Scuppernong

Vitis sp., Grape* 

Suspected: Bladder Campion, Coral-root Orchid, Mtn Pepper Bush, Vermilion Pimpernel & Whorled Loosestrife 

FERNS:

Aspleniaceae 

Asplenium platyneuron, Ebony Spleenwort 

Asplenium montanum, Mountain Spleenwort

Athyriaceae

Athyrium niponicum, Japanese Painted Fern*

Dennstaedtiaceae

Pteridium aquilinum, Bracken Fern

Dryopteridaceae 

Polystichum acrostichoides, Christmas Fern

Huperziaceae (a clubmoss family)

Huperzia lucidula, Shining Clubmoss

Onocleaceae

Matteuccia struthiopteris, Ostrich Fern

Ophioglossaceae

Botrypus virginianus, Rattlesnake Fern or Sang-pointer

Osmundaceae

Osmunda regalis, Royal Fern

Sinopteridaceae

Adiantum capillus-veneris or pedatum, Maiden Hair Fern

Woodsiaceae

Athyrium filix-femina subsp. angustum or filix- femina subsp. aspleniodes, Lady Fern

Onoclea sensibilis, Sensitive Fern

Woodsia obtusa, Bluntlobe Cliff Fern

Polypodiaceae 

Pleopeltis polypodioides, Resurrection fern

Polypodium appalachianum, Appalachian Polypody 

Thelypteridaceae 

Phegopteris hexagonoptera, Broad Beech Fern

Thelypteris noveboracensis, New York Fern  

LYCOPHYTES:

Lycopodiaceae (a clubmoss family)

Diphasiastrum digitatum, Fan Clubmoss

Lycopodium spp., Running Cedar

Selaginellaceae

Selaginella sp.

MOSSES:

Brachytheciaceae

Bryoandersonia sp. 

Fissidentaceae

Fissidens sp. 

Orthotrichaceae

Ulota crispa

Polytrichaceae

Atrichium sp.

Polytrichum commune 

Thuidiaceae

Thuidium sp.

SIGNIFICANT INVERTEBRATES: 

Halyomorpha halys, Brown Marmorated Stink Bug- Invading the home and land!!!!

Hypochilidae, Lampshade Spider. One of the oldest known lineages of living spiders.  Lives in wide funnel/lampshade shaped webs on rock boulders or overhangs.  Found on boulder near waterfall. 

Mantis religiosa, European mantis

Meloe americanus, Blue-humpbacked-blister Beetle

Ground Wasps

BUTTERFLIES:

Nymphalidae

Danaus plexippus, Monarch

Polygonia comma, Comma

Papilonidae

Battus philenor, Pipevine Swallowtail

Papilio troilus, Spicebush Swallowtail

Pieridae

Phoebis sennae Suplhur

Pieris rapae, Cabbage White

BIRDS: (Seen or heard on the Property)

Accipitridae

Accipiter cooperi, Cooper’s Hawk

Circus hudsonius, Northern Harrier 

Bombycillidae

Bombycilla cedrorum, Cedar Waxwing

Cardinalidae

Cardinalis cardinalis, Cardinal

Passerina ciris, Painted Bunting 

Passerina cyanea, Indigo Bunting 

Piranga olivacea, Scarlet Tanager

Cathartidae

Cathartes aura, Turkey Vulture

Certhidae

Tree Creeper 

Columbidae

Zenaida macroura, Mourning Dove

BIRDS Continued:

Corvidae

Corvus sp., Crow

Cyanocitta cristata Bluejay

Cuculidae

Coccyzus erythrothalmus, Black-Billed Cuckoo

Fringillidae

Coccothraustes vespertinus, Evening Grosbeak

Spinus tristis, American Goldfinch 

Hirundinidae

Hirundo rustica, Barn Swallow

Mimidae

Dumetella carolinensis, Gray Catbird

Mimus polyglottos, Northern Mockingbird

Paridae

Poecile carolinensis, Carolina Chickadee

Baeolophus bicolor, Tufted Titmouse

Parulidae

Mniotilta varia, Black and White Warbler

Seiurus aurocapilla, Oven Bird

Setophaga citrina, Hooded Warbler

Passerilidae

Junco hyemalis, Dark-Eyed Junco

Melospiza melodia, Song Sparrow

Pipilo erythrophthalmus, Eastern Towhee

Other Sparrows

Phasianidae

Grouse

Pheasant, 

Meleagris gallopavo, Wild Turkey

Picidae

Colaptes auratus, Northern Flicker

Dryobates pubescens , Downy Woodpecker

Dryocopus pileatus, Pileated Woodpecker

Leuconotopicus villosus, Hairy Woodpecker

Melanerpes carolinus, Red-bellied Woodpecker

Regulidae

Regulus calendula, Ruby-crowned kinglet

Regulus satrapa, Goldencrowned Kinglet

Strigidae 

Megascops asio, Eastern Screech Owl 

Strix varia, Barred Owl

Trochilidae
Archilochus colubris, Ruby-Throated Hummingbird

Troglodytidae

Thryothorus ludovicianus, Carolina Wren

Troglodytes hiemalis, Winter Wren

Turdidae

Sialia sp., Blue Bird

Turdus migratorius, American Robin 

Tyrinnidae

Sayornis phoebe, Eastern Phoebe 

Flycather, 

Tytonidae

Tyto alba, Barn Owl

Vireonidae

Vireo olivaceus, Red-Eyed Vireo

FUNGI: 

Agaricaceae

Lycoperdon

Boletaceae

Strobilomyces, Old Man of the Woods

Cantherellaceae

Cantharellus sp., Chanterelle

Corydicypitaceae

Cordyceps sp.

Helotiaceae

Chlorociboria aeruginascens, Blue-Green Stain Fungus 

Hygrophoreaceae

Hygrophorus flavescens, Yellow Waxy Cap

Hypocreaceae

Hypomyces, Lobster Mushroom

Marasmiaceae

Marasmius rotula, Pinwheel Mushroom

Morchellaceae

Morchella esculenta, Morel

Nidulariaceae

Bird’s Nest Fungus

Omphalotaceae
Lentinula edodes, Shiitake

Omphalotus illudens, Jack O’ Lantern

Physalacriaceae

Armillaria sp. Honey Mushrooms

Pluerotaceae

Pleurotus ostreatus, Oyster Mushroom 

Polyporaceae

Fistulina hepatica, Beefsteak Fungus

Laetiporus sp. Chicken of the Woods

Phellinus robiniae, Locust Polypore

Trametes versicolor, Common Turkey Tail 

Trichaptum biforme, Violet-toothed Polypore

Pyronemataceae

Scutellinia scutellata, Eyelash Cup Fungus

Russulaceae

Russula sp., Russula 

Lactarius spp.

Sebacinaceae

Tremellodendron pallidum, False Jelly Coral

Stereaceae

Stereum ostrea, Oyster Shaped Stereum

Xylariaceae

Xylaria polymorpha, Dead-man’s Fingers

LICHENS:

Umbilicaria americanus, Rock Trype

Usnea

SLIME MOLDS: 

Lycogala epidendrum, Wolf’s Milk Slime Mold

Stemonitis splendens, Chocolate Tube-Slime